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Findings from basic science and clinical studies agree that arterial stiffness is fundamental to both the mechanobiology and the biomechanics that dictate vascular health and disease. There is, therefore, an appropriately growing literature on arterial stiffness. Perusal of the literature reveals, however, that many different methods and metrics are used to quantify arterial stiffness, and reported values often differ by orders of magnitude and have different meanings. Without clear definitions and an understanding of possible inter-relations therein, it is increasingly difficult to integrate results from the literature to glean true understanding. In this paper, we briefly review methods that are used to infer values of arterial stiffness that span studies on isolated cells, excised intact vessels, and clinical assessments. We highlight similarities and differences and identify a single theoretical approach that can be used across scales and applications and thus could help to unify future results. We conclude by emphasizing the need to move towards a synthesis of the many disparate reports, for only in this way will we be able to move from our current fragmented understanding to a true appreciation of how vascular cells maintain, remodel, or repair the arteries that are fundamental to cardiovascular properties and function.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of biomechanical engineering
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Loss of vascular ELASTICITY due to factors such as AGING; and ARTERIOSCLEROSIS. Increased arterial stiffness is one of the RISK FACTORS for many CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.
Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of medium and large muscular ARTERIES with lesions in the innermost layer of the artery (ARTERIAL INTIMA). This disease process of atherogenesis includes the retention of cholesterol-rich LIPOPROTEINS and their binding to PROTEOGLYCANS in the arterial intima, generation of proinflammatory molecules that recruit MACROPHAGES to the subendothelial space, formation of FOAM CELLS, and eventual calcification of the arterial wall. These arterial plaques (atheromas) contain CARBOHYDRATES; BLOOD; and CALCIUM.
Blocking of a blood vessel by CHOLESTEROL-rich atheromatous deposits, generally occurring in the flow from a large artery to small arterial branches. It is also called arterial-arterial embolization or atheroembolism which may be spontaneous or iatrogenic. Patients with spontaneous atheroembolism often have painful, cyanotic digits of acute onset.
The relationships between symbols and their meanings.
Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.
Blood is a specialized bodily fluid that delivers necessary substances to the body's cells (in animals) – such as nutrients and oxygen – and transports waste products away from those same cells. In vertebrates, it is composed of blo...
Vascular relates to blood vessels (Oxford Medical Dictionary) and can be used to describe the supply of blood, a disease affecting the blood vessels or molecules associated with these structures. For example, <!--LGfEGNT2Lhm-->atherosclerosis ...
Cardiology is a specialty of internal medicine. Cardiac electrophysiology : Study of the electrical properties and conduction diseases of the heart. Echocardiography : The use of ultrasound to study the mechanical function/physics of the h...