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People living with HIV (PLWH) on antiretroviral therapy (ART) do not progress to AIDS. However, they still suffer from an increased risk of inflammation-associated complications. HIV persists in long-lived CD4+ T cells, which form the major viral reservoir. The persistence of this reservoir despite long-term ART is the major hurdle to curing HIV. Importantly, the size of the HIV reservoir is larger in individuals who start ART late in the course of infection and have a low CD4+/CD8+ ratio. HIV reservoir size is also linked to the levels of persistent inflammation on ART. Thus, novel strategies to reduce immune inflammation and improve the host response to control the HIV reservoir would be a valuable addition to current ART. Among the different strategies under investigation is metformin, a widely used antidiabetic drug that was recently shown to modulate T-cell activation and inflammation. Treatment of non-diabetic individuals with metformin controls inflammation by improving glucose metabolism and by regulating intracellular immunometabolic checkpoints such as the adenosin 5 monophosphate activated protein kinase and mammalian target of rapamycin, in association with microbiota modification.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: BMJ open
The anti-diabetic drug Metformin causes weight loss, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Recent clinical studies show that metformin increases plasma levels of the anorectic gut hormone, PYY, b...
Doravirine is a novel nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection. In vitro and clinical data suggest that doravirine is un...
Background The antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of Trigonella foenum-graceum have been suggested. The effects of hydroalcoholic extract of the plant seeds and metformin against the diabetes-induce...
Metformin is the first line drug in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, however, little is known about its therapeutic potential to prevent or delay damage to the peripheral nerve. Thus, the aim of this...
There is conflicting evidence regarding the association between metformin use and cancer risk in diabetic patients. During 2002-2012, we followed a cohort of 315,890 incident diabetic individuals aged...
The investigators propose to treat newly diagnosed, hyperfiltering T2DM patients with or without microalbuminuria with dapagliflozin or metformin for 4 months. The metformin-treated group ...
The main purpose of this study is to unravel the mechanisms by which the "Low Viral Reservoir Treated" patients (LoViReT) maintain extremely low HIV-1 DNA levels despite having initiated c...
study effects of rosuvastatin on markers of atherosclerosis, thrombosis, in diabetic patients treated with glimepiride/metformin without coronary artery disease. This effect will be inves...
The presence of a pool of cells latently infected by HIV-1 in patients taking HAART and with a viral load below 50 copies/mL is the main limitation to eradication of the virus from the bod...
Effects of Metformin Hydrochloride (HCl) in Combination With Colesevelam HCl, Compared to Metformin HCl Alone, in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and the Effects of Colesevelam HCl on Lipids and Glucose on Pre-diabetic Patients.
This is a 16-week double-blind, placebo-controlled (for colesevelam hydrochloride (HCl)) study in the type 2 diabetic subjects and pre-diabetic subjects. Diabetic participants will also b...
A biguanide hypoglycemic agent used in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus not responding to dietary modification. Metformin improves glycemic control by improving insulin sensitivity and decreasing intestinal absorption of glucose. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p289)
A pharmaceutical preparation of sitagliptin phosphate and metformin hydrochloride that is used in the treatment of TYPE 2 DIABETES.
Peripheral, autonomic, and cranial nerve disorders that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS. These conditions usually result from diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (VASA NERVORUM). Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third nerve palsy (see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES); MONONEUROPATHY; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful POLYNEUROPATHY; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1325)
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.
Diabetes is a lifelong condition that causes a person's blood sugar level to become too high. The two main types of diabetes are: type 1 diabetes type 2 diabetes In the UK, diabetes affects approximately 2.9 million people. There are a...
Standard antiretroviral therapy (ART) consists of the combination of at least three antiretroviral (ARV) drugs to maximally suppress the HIV virus and stop the progression of HIV disease. Huge reductions have been seen in rates of death and suffering whe...