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Repetitions of letters in words are frequent in many languages. Here we explore whether these repetitions affect word recognition. Previous studies of word processing have not provided conclusive evidence of differential processing between repeated and unique letter identities. In the present study, to achieve greater power, we used regression analyses on existing mega-studies of visual word recognition latencies. In both lexical decision (in English, Dutch, and French) and word naming (in English), there was strong evidence that repeated letters delay visual word recognition after major covariates are partialed out. This delay was most robust when the repeated letters occurred in close proximity but not in immediate adjacency to each other. Simulations indicated that the observed inhibitory pattern of repeated letters was not predicted by three leading visual word recognition models. Future theorizing in visual word recognition will need to take account of this inhibitory pattern. It remains to be seen whether the appropriate adjustment should occur in the representation of letter position and identity, or in a more precise description of earlier visual processes.
This article was published in the following journal.
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A preconceived judgment made without adequate evidence and not easily alterable by presentation of contrary evidence.
The tendency to devalue an outcome as a function of its temporal delay or probability of achievement. It can be evaluated in a psychological paradigm that involves the choice between receiving a smaller immediate reward or a larger delayed reward, and may be used to provide a measure of impulsive behavior.
Further or repeated use of equipment, instruments, devices, or materials. It includes additional use regardless of the original intent of the producer as to disposability or durability. It does not include the repeated use of fluids or solutions.
A nuclear RNA-protein complex that plays a role in RNA processing. In the nucleoplasm, the U4-U6 snRNP along with the U5 snRNP preassemble into a single 25S particle that binds to the U1 and U2 snRNPs and the substrate to form mature SPLICEOSOMES. There is also evidence for the existence of individual U4 or U6 snRNPs in addition to their organization as a U4-U6 snRNP.
A 69-amino acid peptide derived from the N-terminal of PROGLUCAGON. It is mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. Further processing of glicentin yield a 30-amino acid N-terminal peptide (glicentin-related polypeptide) and a 37-amino acid peptide OXYNTOMODULIN. Both glicentin and oxyntomodulin can reduce digestive secretions and delay gastric emptying.