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Enzyme immunosorbent assays (EIA) are widely used to detect human anti-platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies (aPF4/H Abs) to rule out heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. However, EIAs cannot differentiate between clinically relevant, platelet-activating and non-relevant, non-platelet activating Abs and only ~50% of patients' sera testing positive by EIA contain antibodies which activate platelets. Recently, we have shown platelet activating aPF4/H Abs bind more strongly to PF4/H complexes than non-platelet activating antibodies. Antigen-antibody interactions are known to depend on electrostatic interactions governed by pH, heat, and ionic strength. We tested, whether changes in pH and ionic strength can improve the specificity of EIAs detecting aPF4/H Abs.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH
Type II heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is mediated by formation of antibodies to platelet factor 4 (PF4)-heparin complexes. We evaluated anti-PF4-heparin negative samples for presence of addit...
Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is caused by platelet-activating antibodies that recognize platelet factor 4/heparin (PF4/hep)-complexes. The in vitro demonstration of PF4/hep antibodies using ...
Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a potentially life-threatening complication of heparin exposure. Diagnosis is most reliable using a combination of an enzyme-immunoassay (EIA) that detects an...
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A lipoprotein-associated PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 which modulates the action of PLATELET ACTIVATING FACTOR by hydrolyzing the SN-2 ester bond to yield the biologically inactive lyso-platelet-activating factor. It has specificity for phospholipid substrates with short-chain residues at the SN-2 position, but inactive against long-chain phospholipids. Deficiency in this enzyme is associated with many diseases including ASTHMA, and HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA.
A phospholipid derivative formed by PLATELETS; BASOPHILS; NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES. It is a potent platelet aggregating agent and inducer of systemic anaphylactic symptoms, including HYPOTENSION; THROMBOCYTOPENIA; NEUTROPENIA; and BRONCHOCONSTRICTION.
A rare, inherited platelet disorder characterized by a selective deficiency in the number and contents of platelet alpha-granules. It is associated with THROMBOCYTOPENIA, enlarged platelets, and prolonged bleeding time.
A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.
The principal cyclooxygenase metabolite of arachidonic acid. It is released upon activation of mast cells and is also synthesized by alveolar macrophages. Among its many biological actions, the most important are its bronchoconstrictor, platelet-activating-factor-inhibitory, and cytotoxic effects.
An antibody is a protein produced by the body's immune system when it detects harmful substances, called antigens. Examples of antigens include microorganisms (such as bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses) and chemicals. Antibodies may be produc...
Enzymes are proteins that catalyze (i.e., increase the rates of) chemical reactions. In enzymatic reactions, the molecules at the beginning of the process, called substrates, are converted into different molecules, called products. Almost all chemical re...
Immunoassay - ELISA
Immunoassays are quick and accurate tests to detect specific molecules. Immunoassays rely on an antibody to bind to the specific structure of a molecule. Antibodies are proteins generated by animals in response to the invasion of a foreign molecule (anti...