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Citrus plants are rich in flavonoids and beneficial for lipid metabolism. However, the mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Both citrus peel flavonoid extracts (CPFE) and a mixture of their primary flavonoid compounds, namely, nobiletin, tangeretin and hesperidin, citrus flavonoid purity mixture (CFPM), were found to have lipid-lowering effects on oleic acid-induced lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells. The carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1α (CPT1α) gene was markedly increased, while the fatty acid synthase (FAS) gene was significantly decreased by both CPFE and CFPM in oleic acid-treated HepG2 cells. Flavonoid compounds from citrus peel suppressed miR-122 and miR-33 expression, which were induced by oleic acid. Changes in miR-122 and miR-33 expression, which subsequently affect the expression of their target mRNAs FAS and CPT1α, are most likely the principal mechanisms leading to decreased lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells. Citrus flavonoids likely regulate lipid metabolism by modulating the expression levels of miR-122 and miR-33.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry
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A plant species of the genus CITRUS, family RUTACEAE that provides the familiar grapefruit. There is evidence that grapefruit juice inhibits CYTOCHROME P-450 isoform 3A4, resulting in delayed metabolism and higher blood levels of a variety of drugs.
Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.
A family of vertebrate and insect lipid droplet associated proteins. They consist of a conserved N-terminal PAT domain (an alpha-helical region of about 110 amino acids), an 11-mer repeat region, and lipid-binding hydrophobic regions or 4-helix bundles near their C-termini. Perilipins transiently or constitutively localize to LIPID DROPLETS in ADIPOCYTES and FOAM CELLS, especially in regions adjacent to the PLASMA MEMBRANE and ENDOPLASMIC RECTICULUM. They are critical for lipid droplet synthesis and homeostasis as well as the regulation of lipid metabolism. Genetic variations in perilipins are associated with ATHEROSCLEROSIS; OBESITY; and DIABETES MELLITUS.
A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE. The common names of beebalm or lemonbalm are also used for MELISSA. The common name of bergamot is also used for Citrus bergamia (CITRUS).
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