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Surgical resection and perioperative adjuvant therapy are widely accepted standard treatments for gastrointestinal cancer. However, body composition changes, such as weight loss and skeletal muscle loss, are unavoidable during these treatments. Several studies have shown that perioperative body composition changes are affected by multimodal treatment for gastrointestinal cancer. This review summarizes the background, current status, and future perspectives of perioperative body composition changes in the multimodal treatment of gastrointestinal cancer. Recent studies have described the body composition changes observed in the early period after surgery and during adjuvant therapy. Changes in the body composition might affect adjuvant chemotherapy toxicity after surgery and postoperative complications after neoadjuvant therapy. The mechanisms underlying body composition changes during multimodal therapy are multifactorial and include systemic inflammation, reduced nutrient intake, and physical inactivity. Several approaches have been tested to maintain the body composition, and especially prevent skeletal muscle wasting, during multimodal therapy. Although the ideal approach for managing body composition changes in gastrointestinal cancer patients remains unclear, recent studies support the combination of multiple approaches rather than a single approach.
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Name: Surgery today
Perioperative oral/dental care has been introduced to cancer surgery patients as perioperative management using a multimodal approach. Several approaches were tested for managing perioperative oral/de...
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Irradiation of one half or both halves of the body in the treatment of disseminated cancer or widespread metastases. It is used to treat diffuse metastases in one session as opposed to multiple fields over an extended period. The more frequent treatment modalities are upper hemibody irradiation (UHBI) or lower hemibody irradiation (LHBI). Less common is mid-body irradiation (MBI). In the treatment of both halves of the body sequentially, hemibody irradiation permits radiotherapy of the whole body with larger doses of radiation than could be accomplished with WHOLE-BODY IRRADIATION. It is sometimes called "systemic" hemibody irradiation with reference to its use in widespread cancer or metastases. (P. Rubin et al. Cancer, Vol 55, p2210, 1985)
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
An internationally recognized set of published rules used for evaluation of cancer treatment that define when tumors found in cancer patients improve, worsen, or remain stable during treatment. These criteria are based specifically on the response of the tumor(s) to treatment, and not on the overall health status of the patient resulting from treatment.
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