Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
Plant nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat-containing (NLR) proteins function as intracellular receptors in response to pathogens and activate effector-triggered immune responses (ETI). The activation of some sensor NLRs (sNLR) by their corresponding pathogen effector is well studied. However, the mechanisms by which the recently defined helper NLRs (hNLR) function to transduce sNLR activation into ETI-associated cell death and disease resistance remains poorly understood. We briefly summarize recent examples of sNLR activation and we then focus on hNLR requirements in sNLR-initiated immune responses. We further discuss how shared sequence homology with fungal self-incompatibility proteins and the mammalian mixed lineage kinase domain like pseudokinase (MLKL) proteins informs a plausible model for the structure and function of an ancient clade of plant hNLRs, called RNLs.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Current opinion in plant biology
The molecular codes underpinning the functions of plant NLR immune receptors are poorly understood. We used Mu transposition to generate a random truncation library and identify the minimal functiona...
Plants have evolved multiple defense strategies to cope with pathogens, among which plant immune signaling that relies on cell-surface localized and intracellular receptors takes fundamental roles. Ex...
Plant innate immunity is triggered via direct or indirect recognition of pathogen effectors by the NLR family immune receptors. Mechanistic understanding of plant NLR function has relied on structural...
Plant immune receptors perceive microbial molecules and initiate an array of biochemical responses that are effective against most invaders. The role of the plant immune system in detecting and contro...
CD4 T cells play a central role in orchestrating the immune response to a variety of pathogens but also regulate autoimmune responses, asthma, allergic responses, as well as tumor immunity. To cover t...
Plant stanols are known to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. However, studies have suggested that these compounds also influence the immune system. Asthmatic responses are predomi...
Recent scientific advances have shown the important role of immune system against cancer. Today, many immunological biotherapy like anti-PD1/PDL-1 are available in cancer treatment and gen...
The aim of the present trial is to study the effect of the combination of plant extracts (BSL_EP024) in the activation of the immune response.
At the end of 2004 there were more than 40 million people infected worldwide with HIV, with an estimated 16,000 new infections every day (Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS [UNAIDS...
Increasing evidence suggests that immune responses might be a determining factor in lung cancer tumor progression. The impressive clinical responses obtained with immune checkpoint inhibi...
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. They are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. T4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A plant growing in a location where it is not wanted, often competing with cultivated plants.
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
Small, linear single-stranded RNA molecules functionally acting as molecular parasites of certain RNA plant viruses. Satellite RNAs exhibit four characteristic traits: (1) they require helper viruses to replicate; (2) they are unnecessary for the replication of helper viruses; (3) they are encapsidated in the coat protein of the helper virus; (4) they have no extensive sequence homology to the helper virus. Thus they differ from SATELLITE VIRUSES which encode their own coat protein, and from the genomic RNA; (=RNA, VIRAL); of satellite viruses. (From Maramorosch, Viroids and Satellites, 1991, p143)