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Help wanted: helper NLRs and plant immune responses.

08:00 EDT 4th May 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Help wanted: helper NLRs and plant immune responses."

Plant nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat-containing (NLR) proteins function as intracellular receptors in response to pathogens and activate effector-triggered immune responses (ETI). The activation of some sensor NLRs (sNLR) by their corresponding pathogen effector is well studied. However, the mechanisms by which the recently defined helper NLRs (hNLR) function to transduce sNLR activation into ETI-associated cell death and disease resistance remains poorly understood. We briefly summarize recent examples of sNLR activation and we then focus on hNLR requirements in sNLR-initiated immune responses. We further discuss how shared sequence homology with fungal self-incompatibility proteins and the mammalian mixed lineage kinase domain like pseudokinase (MLKL) proteins informs a plausible model for the structure and function of an ancient clade of plant hNLRs, called RNLs.

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This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Current opinion in plant biology
ISSN: 1879-0356
Pages: 82-94

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. They are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. T4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.

55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.

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Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.

Small, linear single-stranded RNA molecules functionally acting as molecular parasites of certain RNA plant viruses. Satellite RNAs exhibit four characteristic traits: (1) they require helper viruses to replicate; (2) they are unnecessary for the replication of helper viruses; (3) they are encapsidated in the coat protein of the helper virus; (4) they have no extensive sequence homology to the helper virus. Thus they differ from SATELLITE VIRUSES which encode their own coat protein, and from the genomic RNA; (=RNA, VIRAL); of satellite viruses. (From Maramorosch, Viroids and Satellites, 1991, p143)

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