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Complex regional pain syndromes (CRPS) are rare painful conditions characterized by considerable variability in possible triggering factors, usually traumatic, and in the clinical scenario. The limited knowledge of the pathophysiological mechanisms has led to countless treatment attempts with multiple conservative and surgical options that act by different mechanisms of action. Areas covered: In this narrative review, the authors discuss key points about CRPS definitions, diagnostic criteria and pitfalls, pathophysiological hypotheses, and treatment strategies with particular reference to pharmacotherapy. The article was based on a literature search using PubMed while the available guidelines for the management of CRPS were also examined. Expert opinion: According to the quality of evidence, pharmacological interventions for CRPS seem to be more effective all the more so when they act on peripheral mechanisms, particularly on nociceptive pain, and when applied early in the disease, while reliable evidence about central mechanisms of chronic pain in CRPS is lacking. In our opinion, drug therapy should be preferred as early as possible, particularly in warm forms of CRPS to prevent significant functional limitation, psychological distress, and social and economic fallout.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy
Complex Regional Pain Syndrome is a painful and disabling post-traumatic primary pain disorder. Acute and chronic CRPS are major clinical challenges. In Europe progress is hampered by significant hete...
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a life-altering condition that usually affects the extremities after a trauma or nerve injury. The physiologic changes that occur as a result of the inciting i...
Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is much more prevalent in women than men but potential differences in clinical phenotype have not been thoroughly explored to date. Differences in the clinical pr...
To evaluate the influence of pain sensitization in the early recovery of distal radius fractures (DRFs) on the occurrence and prognosis of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type I.
Although complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) of the knee is comparable to CRPS of the ankle/foot at time of diagnosis, no reports are available concerning the course of knee CRPS. Therefore, this st...
A French University team (M. Jeanne, MD, and M. LOGIER, Ph D) have developed a pain assessment tool based on the analysis of the variability heart rate which evaluates the Analgesia Nocice...
This is a multicenter, open-label study in adult subjects with Type 1 Complex Regional Pain Syndrome. Subjects diagnosed with unilateral Type 1 CRPS will be enrolled sequentially to recei...
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a disease provoking chronic pain in the limbs, following a trauma. Patient care is complicated by the variable clinical picture and response to tre...
The objective of this prospective, observational study is to determine the association between the composition of the gut microbiota and the severity and persistence of Complex Regional Pa...
The purpose of this study is to determine if lenalidomide is a safe and effective treatment for complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS).
Conditions characterized by pain involving an extremity or other body region, HYPERESTHESIA, and localized autonomic dysfunction following injury to soft tissue or nerve. The pain is usually associated with ERYTHEMA; SKIN TEMPERATURE changes, abnormal sudomotor activity (i.e., changes in sweating due to altered sympathetic innervation) or edema. The degree of pain and other manifestations is out of proportion to that expected from the inciting event. Two subtypes of this condition have been described: type I; (REFLEX SYMPATHETIC DYSTROPHY) and type II; (CAUSALGIA). (From Pain 1995 Oct;63(1):127-33)
A complex regional pain syndrome characterized by burning pain and marked sensitivity to touch (HYPERESTHESIA) in the distribution of an injured peripheral nerve. Autonomic dysfunction in the form of sudomotor (i.e., sympathetic innervation to sweat glands), vasomotor, and trophic skin changes may also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1359)
A syndrome characterized by retropatellar or peripatellar PAIN resulting from physical and biochemical changes in the patellofemoral joint. The pain is most prominent when ascending or descending stairs, squatting, or sitting with flexed knees. There is a lack of consensus on the etiology and treatment. The syndrome is often confused with (or accompanied by) CHONDROMALACIA PATELLAE, the latter describing a pathological condition of the CARTILAGE and not a syndrome.
Complex pain syndrome with unknown etiology, characterized by constant or intermittent generalized vulva pain (Generalized vulvodynia) or localized burning sensations in the VESTIBULE area when pressure is applied (Vestibulodynia, or Vulvar Vestibulitis Syndrome). Typically, vulvar tissue with vulvodynia appears normal without infection or skin disease. Vulvodynia impacts negatively on a woman's quality of life as it interferes with sexual and daily activities.
Diseases of the cervical (and first thoracic) roots, nerve trunks, cords, and peripheral nerve components of the BRACHIAL PLEXUS. Clinical manifestations include regional pain, PARESTHESIA; MUSCLE WEAKNESS, and decreased sensation (HYPESTHESIA) in the upper extremity. These disorders may be associated with trauma (including BIRTH INJURIES); THORACIC OUTLET SYNDROME; NEOPLASMS; NEURITIS; RADIOTHERAPY; and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1351-2)
Pain is defined by the International Association for the Study of Pain as “an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage or described in terms of such damage”. Some illnesses can be excruci...
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