Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
Injury-induced axon degeneration in model organisms and cell culture has emerged as an area of growing interest due to its experimental tractability and to the promise of identifying conserved mechanisms that mediate axon loss in human disease. Injury-induced axon degeneration is also observed within the well-studied process of Wallerian degeneration, a complex phenomenon triggered by axon injury to peripheral nerves in mammals. Recent studies have led to the identification of key molecular components of injury-induced axon degeneration. Axon survival factors, such as NMNAT2, act to protect injured axons from degeneration. By contrast, factors such as SARM1, MAPK, and PHR1 act to promote degeneration. The coordinated activity of these factors determines axon fate after injury. Since axon loss is an early feature of neurodegenerative diseases, it is possible that understanding the molecular mechanism of injury-induced degeneration will lead to new treatments for axon loss in neurodegenerative disease. Here, we discuss the critical pathways for injury-induced axon degeneration across species with an emphasis on their interactions in an integrated signaling network.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Current opinion in neurobiology
Axon degeneration sculpts neuronal connectivity patterns during development and is an early hallmark of several adult-onset neurodegenerative disorders. Substantial progress has been made in identifyi...
Neurodegenerative and neuromuscular disorders can manifest throughout the lifespan of an individual, from infant to elderly individuals. Axonal and synaptic degeneration are early and critical element...
Axonal degeneration is an active, highly controlled process that contributes to beneficial processes, such as developmental pruning, but also to neurodegeneration. In glaucoma, ocular hypertension lea...
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) often damages axons in white matter tracts and causes corpus callosum (CC) atrophy in chronic TBI patients. Injured axons encounter irreversible damage if transected, or a...
Injured axons fail to regenerate in the adult CNS, which contrasts with their vigorous growth during embryonic development. We explored the potential of re-initiating axon extension after injury by re...
This study will evaluate the effects of a nutritional supplement called nicotinamide riboside in preventing small fiber nerve degeneration that is experimentally induced by applying capsai...
After nerve injury and facial palsy, many patients have permanent muscle and sensory dysfunction. Electrical stimulation (ES) of injured nerves may speed up axon growth and improve recover...
Trauma-induced coagulopathy is a central cause of preventable deaths from hemorrhage after injury. The contribution and impact of altered post injury platelet biology on trauma-induced coa...
Dopamine(DA) is a common neurotransmitter that has been known to regulate behavior, movement, cardiovascular，endocrine and gastrointestinal functions, but also functions as an important ...
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) typically provokes secondary injury mechanisms, including the dynamic interplay between the ischemic, inflammatory, and cytotoxic processes. Moreover, such an ...
Degeneration of distal aspects of a nerve axon following injury to the cell body or proximal portion of the axon. The process is characterized by fragmentation of the axon and its MYELIN SHEATH.
First segment of axon that connects distal axon segments to the neuronal CELL BODY at the axon hillock region. The axon initial segment is not protected by the MYELIN SHEATH and has properties critical for axonal growth. The axon initial segment and the axon hillock form an axonal trigger zone.
Prolonged unconsciousness from which the individual cannot be aroused, associated with traumatic injuries to the BRAIN. This may be defined as unconsciousness persisting for 6 hours or longer. Coma results from injury to both cerebral hemispheres or the RETICULAR FORMATION of the BRAIN STEM. Contributing mechanisms include DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY and BRAIN EDEMA. (From J Neurotrauma 1997 Oct;14(10):699-713)
Diseases of multiple peripheral nerves simultaneously. Polyneuropathies usually are characterized by symmetrical, bilateral distal motor and sensory impairment with a graded increase in severity distally. The pathological processes affecting peripheral nerves include degeneration of the axon, myelin or both. The various forms of polyneuropathy are categorized by the type of nerve affected (e.g., sensory, motor, or autonomic), by the distribution of nerve injury (e.g., distal vs. proximal), by nerve component primarily affected (e.g., demyelinating vs. axonal), by etiology, or by pattern of inheritance.
The pathological mechanisms and forms taken by tissue during degeneration into a neoplasm and its subsequent activity.
Types of Cell Culture Open https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WGKoJRNKADY to view video on cell culture basics. Four catagories of cell culture techniques are listed below: Adherent cells Cells shown to require attachment for growth are sa...
Neurology - Central Nervous System (CNS)
Alzheimer's Disease Anesthesia Anxiety Disorders Autism Bipolar Disorders Dementia Epilepsy Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Neurology Pain Parkinson's Disease Sleep Disorders Neurology is the branch of me...