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Insulin signaling in the central nervous system is at the intersection of brain and body interactions, and represents a fundamental link between metabolic and cognitive disorders. Abnormalities in brain insulin action could underlie the development of comorbid schizophrenia and type 2 diabetes. Among its functions, central nervous system insulin is involved in regulation of striatal dopamine levels, peripheral glucose homeostasis, and feeding regulation. In this review, we discuss the role and importance of central nervous system insulin in schizophrenia and diabetes pathogenesis from a historical and mechanistic perspective. We describe central nervous system insulin sites and pathways of action, with special emphasis on glucose metabolism, cognitive functioning, inflammation, and food preferences. Finally, we suggest possible mechanisms that may explain the actions of central nervous system insulin in relation to schizophrenia and diabetes, focusing on glutamate and dopamine signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and brain energetics. Understanding the interplay between central nervous system insulin and schizophrenia is essential to disentangling this comorbid relationship and may provide novel treatment approaches for both neuropsychiatric and metabolic dysfunction.
This article was published in the following journal.
There is growing evidence to suggest that the brain is an important target for insulin action, and that states of insulin resistance may extend to the CNS with detrimental effects on cognitive functio...
Persons with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder (PwS) have high rates of cardiometabolic pathology that contributes to premature mortality. Adiponectin is a metabolic hormone affecting insulin...
Studies have shown that patients with schizophrenia are at a high risk of developing insulin resistance (IR). We investigated the prevalence of IR and its clinical correlates in hospitalized Chinese p...
Metabolic syndrome and impaired insulin sensitivity may occur as side effects of atypical antipsychotic drugs. However, studies of peripheral insulin resistance using the homeostatic model assessment ...
Numerous neuroimaging studies have revealed that schizophrenia was characterized by wide-spread dysconnection among brain regions during rest measured by functional connectivity (FC). In contrast with...
Insulin resistance is a central pathophysiological component of type 2 diabetes and is associated with a high risk of cardiovascular disease. The tissue in which it manifests are mainly mu...
Cerebral insulin action is important in the regulation of whole body glucose metabolism. However, the cerebral insulin action differs between individuals - there is a so called cerebral in...
This study is an 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of intranasal insulin as an adjunctive therapy, with a 4-week follow-up, in 60 non-diabetic schizophrenia subjec...
The target groups in this study are brain waves and neurotransmitters (chemical messengers) in the brain. Subjects with diagnosed with schizophrenia will be studied. The study will help ...
Research in animals and first experiments in humans indicate that insulin action in the brain regulates peripheral insulin sensitivity. One major organ might be the liver. Previous studies...
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or action of insulin.
A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS. It can be caused by the presence of INSULIN ANTIBODIES or the abnormalities in insulin receptors (RECEPTOR, INSULIN) on target cell surfaces. It is often associated with OBESITY; DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS; INFECTION; and certain rare conditions. (from Stedman, 25th ed)
An insulin preparation that is designed to provide immediate and long term glycemic control in a single dosage. Biphasic insulin typically contains a mixture of REGULAR INSULIN or SHORT-ACTING INSULIN combined with a LONG-ACTING INSULIN.
Oxyvanadium ions in various states of oxidation. They act primarily as ion transport inhibitors due to their inhibition of Na(+)-, K(+)-, and Ca(+)-ATPase transport systems. They also have insulin-like action, positive inotropic action on cardiac ventricular muscle, and other metabolic effects.
Endocrine disorders are grouped into two categories: hormone imbalance - when a gland produces too much or too little of an endocrine hormone development of lesions (such as nodules or tumors) in the endocrine system, which may or may not affect...