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Synaptophysins 1 and 2 and synaptogyrins 1 and 3 constitute a major family of synaptic vesicle membrane proteins. Unlike other widely expressed synaptic vesicle proteins such as vSNAREs and synaptotagmins, the primary function has not been resolved. Here, we report robust elevation in the probability of release of readily releasable vesicles with both high and low release probabilities at a variety of synapse types from knockout mice missing all four family members. Neither the number of readily releasable vesicles, nor the timing of recruitment to the readily releasable pool was affected. The results suggest that family members serve as negative regulators of neurotransmission, acting directly at the level of exocytosis to dampen connection strength selectively when presynaptic action potentials fire at low frequency. The widespread expression suggests that chemical synapses may play a frequency filtering role in biological computation that is more elemental than presently envisioned.
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The release of neurotransmitters from synaptic vesicles (SVs) at pre-synaptic release sites is the principle means by which information transfer between neurons occurs. Knowledge of the location of SV...
Based on evidence that the docked and primed synaptic vesicle state is very dynamic, we propose a three-step process for the buildup of the molecular machinery that mediates synaptic vesicle fusion: (...
Presynaptic neuronal activity requires the localization of thousands of proteins that are typically synthesized in the soma and transported to nerve terminals. Local translation for some dendritic pro...
Information transfer across CNS synapses depends on the very low basal vesicle fusion rate and the ability to rapidly upregulate that rate upon Ca influx. We show that local electrostatic repulsion pa...
Neurotransmitter release at the presynaptic terminal is one of the fundamental processes in neuronal communication. It is a complex process comprising signaling pathways that exert a precise spatio-te...
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An important mechanism responsible for clinical recovery after neurological damage of different types is synaptic plasticity. Nervous tissue can enhance or de-energize inter-neuronal trans...
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The purpose of this study is to evaluate PET methodology to study in vivo synaptic dopamine release.
A family of synaptic vesicle-associated proteins involved in the short-term regulation of NEUROTRANSMITTER release. Synapsin I, the predominant member of this family, links SYNAPTIC VESICLES to ACTIN FILAMENTS in the presynaptic nerve terminal. These interactions are modulated by the reversible PHOSPHORYLATION of synapsin I through various signal transduction pathways. The protein is also a substrate for cAMP- and CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. It is believed that these functional properties are also shared by synapsin II.
A synaptic membrane protein involved in MEMBRANE FUSION of SYNAPTIC VESICLES with the presynaptic membranes. It is the prototype member of the R-SNARE PROTEINS.
A 38-kDa integral membrane glycoprotein of the presynaptic vesicles in neuron and neuroendocrine cells. It is expressed by a variety of normal and neoplastic neuroendocrine cells and is therefore used as an immunocytochemical marker for neuroendocrine differentiation in various tumors. In ALZHEIMER DISEASE and other dementing disorders, there is an important synapse loss due in part to a decrease of synaptophysin in the presynaptic vesicles.
A member of the vesicle associated membrane protein family. It has a broad tissue distribution and is involved in MEMBRANE FUSION events of the endocytic pathways.
Membrane-bound compartments which contain transmitter molecules. Synaptic vesicles are concentrated at presynaptic terminals. They actively sequester transmitter molecules from the cytoplasm. In at least some synapses, transmitter release occurs by fusion of these vesicles with the presynaptic membrane, followed by exocytosis of their contents.
Biological therapy involves the use of living organisms, substances derived from living organisms, or laboratory-produced versions of such substances to treat disease. Some biological therapies for cancer use vaccines or bacteria to stimulate the body&rs...