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There are emerging linkages between biological and genetic aspects of cancer progression and the mechanisms of cancer-associated thrombosis. It is argued that reciprocal influences between cancer cells, their associated vascular stroma, and the hemostatic system may shape the mechanism of coagulopathy. In this regard, glioblastoma multiforme offers a paradigm where the prevalent occurrence of local microthrombosis and peripheral venous thromboembolism can be linked to the profiles of oncogenic driver mutations and their impact on the expression of coagulation-related genes (coagulome). These relationships can be recapitulated in cellular models of glioblastoma, where the expression of tissue factor, podoplanin, and the release of procoagulant microparticles (extracellular vesicles) remains under the control of oncogenic pathways (epidermal growth factor receptor variant III, isocitrate dehydrogenase 1). These pathways define molecular subtypes of glioblastoma that express differential coagulomes. Moreover, single-cell sequencing of glioblastoma samples reveals a combinatorial rather than common profile of both subtype markers and coagulation-related genes. Based on these emerging observations, the authors suggest that cancers may operate as coagulant composites, where individual cells and their dominant populations express different procoagulant phenotypes, resulting in the net impact on the hemostatic system. They suggest that relating these mechanisms to clinical presentations of thrombosis may facilitate a more causality-based, personalized, and possibly cancer-specific thromboprophylaxis and treatment.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis
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Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.
Normal cellular genes homologous to viral oncogenes. The products of proto-oncogenes are important regulators of biological processes and appear to be involved in the events that serve to maintain the ordered procession through the cell cycle. Proto-oncogenes have names of the form c-onc.
The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.
A B7 antigen subtype that inhibits the costimulation of T-cell activation, proliferation, cytokine production and development of cytotoxicity. The over expression of this protein in a variety of tumor cell types suggests its role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
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