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Ultrasound (US) imaging of heart and major arteries and veins is among the most frequently used diagnostic techniques applied in humans. Conventional cardiovascular US sessions include anatomical B-mode and functional M-, pulsed-wave- and Doppler mode, which have their limitations in both precise cardiac chambers' delineation and small vessel imaging. The introduction of contrast-enhanced US, employing microbubble suspensions as contrast agent, has enabled a better delineation of heart chambers, the visualization of myocardial microvasculature, and the atherosclerotic plaque neovascularization. Moreover, specific disease-related molecular tracers have been developed by modifying the microbubbles with targeting ligands directed to biological markers exposed to the luminal side of the blood vessels. Microbubble functionalization has enabled in vivo molecular US imaging of various stages of atherosclerosis, from plaque initiation to plaque vulnerability, and neointima formation following revascularization procedures. Furthermore, oscillating microbubbles have been used to mechanically dissolve thrombus material and may act as carriers of drugs and nucleic acids that are released locally by US pulses. This review article summarizes recent advances in functional and molecular US images and discusses therapeutic applications of microbubbles. The addressed topics include an overview on microbubble formats, microbubble detection methods, molecular targets of cardiovascular diseases, and the use of microbubbles for thrombolysis and drug delivery.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis
Comparative Study of the Effects of FECH-siRNA Transfection Mediated by Ultrasound Microbubbles and PEI in Combination with Low-dose ALA to Enhance PpIX Accumulation in Human Endometrial Cancer Xenograft Nude Mice Models.
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Very small encapsulated gas bubbles (diameters of micrometers) that can be used as CONTRAST MEDIA, and in other diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Upon exposure to sufficiently intense ultrasound, microbubbles will cavitate, rupture, disappear, release gas content, etc. Such characteristics of the microbubbles can be used to enhance diagnostic tests, dissolve blood clots, and deliver drugs or genes for therapy.
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the cardiovascular system or its organs or demonstration of their physiological processes.
A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in cardiovascular and cerebral circulation.
A large group of diseases which are characterized by a low prevalence in the population. They frequently are associated with problems in diagnosis and treatment.
A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in the gastrointestinal system, cardiovascular and cerebral circulation, brain, thyroid, and joints.
Radiology is the branch of medicine that studies imaging of the body; X-ray (basic, angiography, barium swallows), ultrasound, MRI, CT and PET. These imaging techniques can be used to diagnose, but also to treat a range of conditions, by allowing visuali...
Cardiology is a specialty of internal medicine. Cardiac electrophysiology : Study of the electrical properties and conduction diseases of the heart. Echocardiography : The use of ultrasound to study the mechanical function/physics of the h...