Quantitative facial expression analysis revealed the efficacy and time course of oxytocin in autism.

08:00 EDT 16th May 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Quantitative facial expression analysis revealed the efficacy and time course of oxytocin in autism."

Discrepancies in efficacy between single-dose and repeated administration of oxytocin for autism spectrum disorder have led researchers to hypothesize that time-course changes in efficacy are induced by repeated administrations of the peptide hormone. However, repeatable, objective, and quantitative measurement of autism spectrum disorder's core symptoms are lacking, making it difficult to examine potential time-course changes in efficacy. We tested this hypothesis using repeatable, objective, and quantitative measurement of the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder. We examined videos recorded during semi-structured social interaction administered as the primary outcome in single-site exploratory (n = 18, crossover within-subjects design) and multisite confirmatory (n = 106, parallel-group design), double-blind, placebo-controlled 6-week trials of repeated intranasal administrations of oxytocin (48 IU/day) in adult males with autism spectrum disorder. The main outcomes were statistical representative values of objectively quantified facial expression intensity in a repeatable part of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule: the maximum probability (i.e. mode) and the natural logarithm of mode on the probability density function of neutral facial expression and the natural logarithm of mode on the probability density function of happy expression. Our recent study revealed that increases in these indices characterize autistic facial expression, compared with neurotypical individuals. The current results revealed that oxytocin consistently and significantly decreased the increased natural logarithm of mode on the probability density function of neutral facial expression compared with placebo in exploratory (effect-size, -0.57; 95% CI, -1.27 to 0.13; P = 0.023) and confirmatory trials (-0.41; -0.62 to -0.20; P < 0.001). A significant interaction between time-course (at baseline, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks) and the efficacy of oxytocin on the natural logarithm of mode on the probability density function of neutral facial expression was found in confirmatory trial (P < 0.001). Post hoc analyses revealed maximum efficacy at 2 weeks (P < 0.001, Cohen's d = -0.78; 95% CI, -1.21 to -0.35) and deterioration of efficacy at 4 weeks (P = 0.042, Cohen's d = -0.46; 95% CI, -0.90 to -0.01) and 6 weeks (P = 0.10, Cohen's d = -0.35; 95% CI, -0.77 to 0.08), while efficacy was preserved at 2 weeks post-treatment (i.e. 8 weeks) (P < 0.001, Cohen's d = -1.24; 95% CI, -1.71 to -0.78). Quantitative facial expression analyses successfully verified the positive effects of repeated oxytocin on autistic individuals' facial expressions and demonstrated a time-course change in efficacy. The current findings support further development of an optimized regimen of oxytocin treatment.


Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Brain : a journal of neurology
ISSN: 1460-2156


DeepDyve research library

PubMed Articles [45586 Associated PubMed Articles listed on BioPortfolio]

Compare the efficacy of acupuncture with drugs in the treatment of Bell's palsy: A systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs.

Bell's palsy or idiopathic facial paralysis is an acute facial paralysis caused by the inflammation of facial nerve. Several previous studies showed that acupuncture was beneficial in the treatment of...

A Novel Dynamic Model Capturing Spatial and Temporal Patterns for Facial Expression Analysis.

Facial expression analysis could be greatly improved by incorporating spatial and temporal patterns present in facial behavior, but the patterns have not yet been utilized to their full advantage. We ...

Hybrid analysis of gene dynamics predicts context specific expression and offers regulatory insights.

To understand the regulatory pathways underlying diseases, studies often investigate the differential gene expression between genetically or chemically differing cell populations. Differential express...

Facial expression recognition based on Electroencephalogram and facial landmark localization.

Facial expression recognition plays an essential role in affective computing, mental illness diagnosis and rehabilitation. Therefore, facial expression recognition has attracted more and more attentio...

Analysis of Facial Reanimation Procedures Performed Concurrently With Total Parotidectomy and Facial Nerve Sacrifice.

Facial reanimation procedures share the same surgical field as a parotidectomy and are most easily accomplished at the time of facial nerve sacrifice. Early reanimation would also reduce the duration ...

Clinical Trials [9208 Associated Clinical Trials listed on BioPortfolio]

Emotional Perception and Production in Facial Palsy: Respiratory, Vocal and Facial Markers.

Respiratory function, phonation and facial expressivity are related to emotional reaction through neurophysiological process. Specific emotional respiratory, vocal and facial patterns had ...

DAME: Detection of Arousal With Facial Micro-expression in Severe Brain-damaged Patient

Severe brain injuries lead to disorders of consciousness after coma. During this awakening period, detection of arousal is critical to the adaptation of medical strategy, but global paraly...

Facial Expression Recognition of Emotion and Categorization of Emotional Words in Gilles de la Tourette's Syndrome

Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome is a childhood onset inherited neuropsychiatric disorder characterised by the presence of both multiple motor tics and one or more vocal tics (noises), wit...

Facial Expression Recognition of Emotion and Categorization of Emotional Words in Parkinson's Disease. Impact of L-Dopa and Deep Brain Stimulation of Subthalamic Nucleus

Parkinson'disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterised by bradykinesia, rigidity, rest tremor and postural instability. Dopaminergic therapy such as L-Dopa and dopamine agonists u...

Sensory Re-Training Following Facial Surgery for Correction of Facial Skeletal Disharmony

The purpose of this study is to determine whether facial exercises in conjunction with opening exercises routinely provided after facial surgery to correct a facial skeletal disharmony wil...

Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Locations, on the GENOME, of GENES or other genetic elements that encode or control the expression of a quantitative trait (QUANTITATIVE TRAIT, HERITABLE).

Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)

The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and salivary glands, and convey afferent information for taste from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and for touch from the external ear.

Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.

Method in which repeated blood pressure readings are made while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It allows quantitative analysis of the high blood pressure load over time, can help distinguish between types of HYPERTENSION, and can assess the effectiveness of antihypertensive therapy.

Quick Search


DeepDyve research library

Relevant Topics

Neurology - Central Nervous System (CNS)
Alzheimer's Disease Anesthesia Anxiety Disorders Autism Bipolar Disorders Dementia Epilepsy Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Neurology Pain Parkinson's Disease Sleep Disorders Neurology is the branch of me...

Endocrine Disorders
Endocrine disorders are grouped into two categories: hormone imbalance - when a gland produces too much or too little of an endocrine hormone development of lesions (such as nodules or tumors) in the endocrine system, which may or may not affect...

Searches Linking to this Article