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Leksell Radiosurgery for Ependymomas and Oligodendrogliomas.

08:00 EDT 16th May 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Leksell Radiosurgery for Ependymomas and Oligodendrogliomas."

Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has become a standard management option for less common glial tumors. When imaging defines a recurrent or progressive ependymoma after initial resection in a child who has completed adjuvant fractionated radiation therapy, SRS may be used as a boost or salvage strategy. For patients with oligodendrogliomas diagnosed by biopsy or after cytoreductive surgery, SRS may be used as a primary option in smaller volume tumors, or as an adjuvant option for tumors that have progressed after initial surgery, chemotherapy, or fractionated radiation therapy. Currently the increasing use of molecular markers in both tumors helps to define the prognosis, risk of recurrence, and perhaps response to boost or salvage SRS. This report examines the role of SRS in these less common glial tumors.

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This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Progress in neurological surgery
ISSN: 1662-3924
Pages: 200-206

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Glioma derived from ependymocytes that tend to present as malignant intracranial tumors in children and as benign intraspinal neoplasms in adults. It may arise from any level of the ventricular system or central canal of the spinal cord. Intracranial ependymomas most frequently originate in the FOURTH VENTRICLE and histologically are densely cellular tumors which may contain ependymal tubules and perivascular pseudorosettes. Spinal ependymomas are usually benign papillary or myxopapillary tumors. (From DeVita et al., Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2018; Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, pp28-9)

Rare, slow-growing, benign intraventricular tumors, often asymptomatic and discovered incidentally. The tumors are classified histologically as ependymomas and demonstrate a proliferation of subependymal fibrillary astrocytes among the ependymal tumor cells. (From Clin Neurol Neurosurg 1997 Feb;99(1):17-22)

Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)

A radiological stereotactic technique developed for cutting or destroying tissue by high doses of radiation in place of surgical incisions. It was originally developed for neurosurgery on structures in the brain and its use gradually spread to radiation surgery on extracranial structures as well. The usual rigid needles or probes of stereotactic surgery are replaced with beams of ionizing radiation directed toward a target so as to achieve local tissue destruction.

An autosomal dominant disorder characterized by a high incidence of bilateral acoustic neuromas as well as schwannomas (NEURILEMMOMA) of other cranial and peripheral nerves, and other benign intracranial tumors including meningiomas, ependymomas, spinal neurofibromas, and gliomas. The disease has been linked to mutations of the NF2 gene (GENES, NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2) on chromosome 22 (22q12) and usually presents clinically in the first or second decade of life.

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