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Schizophrenia is a phenotypically heterogeneous and poorly understood disorder. While its etiology is likely multifactorial, immune system dysfunction has increasingly been implicated in its development. As hallucinations and delusions occur frequently and prominently in autoimmune encephalitis (AE), numerous studies have sought to determine whether a small subset of individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia possess anti-neuronal antibodies implicated in AE. Exploring this possibility is of clinical relevance, as identifying individuals with AE who have been misdiagnosed as having a primary psychotic disorder may allow for the implementation of appropriate immune-related therapies as early as possible in the course of the illness, in order to optimize outcomes, reduce illness chronicity, and minimize adverse events. This qualitative review serves to provide an overview of the existing literature on this topic, as well as to update previously published reviews. Although there is some evidence to suggest that in rare cases AE may be misdiagnosed as a primary psychotic disorder, particularly early in the course of the illness, numerous methodological differences between studies likely account for the highly variable findings, and interpretation of the results is particularly limited by a paucity of cerebrospinal fluid data. Moreover, the prevalence of misdiagnosis in chronic and treatment-resistant populations remains understudied. This is particularly problematic, as treatment resistance may represent an enriched population with respect to the presence of anti-neuronal antibodies, and given that such patients have few evidence-based treatment options available to them beyond clozapine.
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A recent study suggested that digestion-resistant peptides derived from wheat gluten (mainly gliadin) could induce the secretion of anti-gliadin IgG antibodies in patients with schizophrenia. This res...
is prevalent intracellular parasite and a cause of worldwide infection in the human population. An inhibitory effect of this parasite on cancer growth has been demonstrated in cell culture and animal ...
The disorders of the central nervous system associated with cancer by remote immune-mediated mechanisms are a heterogeneous group. These disorders encompass the classic paraneoplastic disorders and th...
Enzyme immunosorbent assays (EIA) are widely used to detect human anti-platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies (aPF4/H Abs) to rule out heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. However, EIAs cannot differentiat...
The prevalence of auto-antibodies associated to pulmonary arterial hypertension in scleroderma patients was reviewed, based on reports cited in two major scientific databases. Data was collected on th...
This study aims to determine how clozapine treatment improves neuronal measures of sensory gating in subjects with schizophrenia.
Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by a chronic inflammation of the small bowel mucosa, triggered by the ingestion of gluten-containing grains. The diagnosis of celiac...
This study purpose is to conduct a confirmatory double-blind randomized controlled trial in an inpatient setting of the effects of a tightly controlled gluten-free diet (GFD) to improve ne...
To evaluate the persistence of anti-hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV) and anti-hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) antibodies up to 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 years after administration of the first ...
The goal of the project is to characterize abnormalities in brain structure and function related to schizophrenia. The investigators will use advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tech...
A paraneoplastic syndrome marked by degeneration of neurons in the medial temporal lobe. Clinical features include behavioral changes, HALLUCINATIONS, loss of short term memory, anosmia, AGEUSIA, and DEMENTIA. Circulating anti-neuronal antibodies (anti-Hu; also called ANNA 1) and small cell lung carcinomas are frequently associated with this condition. (From Pathologe 1997 Sep;18(5):406-10; J Int Neuropsychol Soc 1996 Sep;2(5):460-6; Brain 1997 Jun;120(Pt 6):923-8)
An energy dependent process following the crosslinking of B CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS by multivalent ligands (bivalent anti-antibodies, LECTINS or ANTIGENS), on the B-cell surface. The crosslinked ligand-antigen receptor complexes collect in patches which flow to and aggregate at one pole of the cell to form a large mass - the cap. The caps may then be endocytosed or shed into the environment.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
Loss of detectable antigen from the surface of a cell after incubation with antibodies. This is one method in which some tumors escape detection by the immune system. Antigenic modulation of target antigens also reduces the therapeutic effectiveness of treatment by monoclonal antibodies.
Surface ligands that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion and function in the assembly and interconnection of the vertebrate nervous system. These molecules promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES, now known to be expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types in addition to nervous tissue.
An antibody is a protein produced by the body's immune system when it detects harmful substances, called antigens. Examples of antigens include microorganisms (such as bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses) and chemicals. Antibodies may be produc...
Psychiatry is the study of mental disorders and their diagnosis, management and prevention. Conditions include schizophrenia, severe depression and panic disorders among others. There are pharmaceutical treatments as well as other therapies to help...