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Some recently developed brain-dedicated positron emission tomography (PET) scanners measure subjects in a sitting position. Sitting enables PET scanning under more natural conditions for the subjects and also helps with making the scanners smaller. It is unclear, however, how much the degree of head motion when sitting differs from the supine posture commonly employed in clinical PET. In this report, we describe development of a markerless and contactless head motion tracking system and a study of healthy volunteers in several different postures to determine the optimum posture for brain PET. We used Kinect® (Microsoft) and developed software that can measure head motion with about 1-mm (translation) and less than 1-deg (rotation) accuracy. In the volunteer study, we measured the amount of head motion, with and without head fixation, in supine, normal sitting, and reclining postures. The results indicated that the normal sitting posture without head fixation had the largest head movement, and that the reclining and supine postures were similarly effective for minimizing head movement (average head movement of about 0.5 mm during 1 min). We also visualized the influence that head motion had on images for each pose by simulating the actual motions obtained from the volunteer study using a digital Hoffman phantom. Comparisons with the original image showed that the extent to which motion was reduced in the reclining and supine postures were quantitatively equivalent. The head motions of the volunteer studies were also reproduced using a mannequin head on a motorized stage to assess how well the proposed motion measurement system worked when used for motion correction. The results indicated that even though the system improved image quality for all postures, the reclining and supine postures could provide better image quality than the normal sitting posture.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Physics in medicine and biology
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The posture of an individual lying face up.
The measurement of magnetic fields over the head generated by electric currents in the brain. As in any electrical conductor, electric fields in the brain are accompanied by orthogonal magnetic fields. The measurement of these fields provides information about the localization of brain activity which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY. Magnetoencephalography may be used alone or together with electroencephalography, for measurement of spontaneous or evoked activity, and for research or clinical purposes.
A numerical rating scale for classifying the periodontal status of a person or population with a single figure which takes into consideration prevalence as well as severity of the condition. It is based upon probe measurement of periodontal pockets and on gingival tissue status.
The anterior concavity in the curvature of the lumbar and cervical spine as viewed from the side. The term usually refers to abnormally increased curvature (hollow back, saddle back, swayback). It does not include lordosis as normal mating posture in certain animals ( = POSTURE + SEX BEHAVIOR, ANIMAL).
The height of the ABDOMEN as measured in the SUPINE POSITION.