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It is imperative for sustainable agriculture to explore practices and inputs creating low NO emission capacity without reducing the productivity of the agricultural system. To evaluate different nutrient management schemes, a microcosm study was conducted to assess the direct NO emission from soil. Four different treatments were used to provide a preliminary assessment of NO emissions, as well as the concentrations of nitrates (NO) and ammonium (NH) produced in soil: compost (derived from green plant residues), chickpea residues (green manure) in two different N concentrations (2.6% and 5.5%, respectively) and ammonium nitrate (fertilizer). The soil was thoroughly mixed with the organic amendments and ammonium nitrate and incubated for 31 days. The emissions of NO were higher in green manure with high-N content, as a source of nitrogen in the soil, and were similar to the emissions measured from the chemically fertilized soil. In particular, chickpea residues, with high-N content, exhibited cumulative NO emissions, equal to 266.17 μg N/m, whereas in fertilized soil the emissions were 267.10 μg N/m. On the contrary, the incorporation of chickpea plant residues with low-N content can be an efficient way to minimize the NO emissions at 21.63 μg N/m. The emissions of NO when compost was applied, remained relatively low, equal to 5.47 μg N/m, and in comparison to soil without any treatment. Overall, a positive association between NH, NO in soil and NO emissions were observed. However, this response was treatment depended, and the significant positive correlation between NH and NO emissions were noticed in soils treated with ammonium nitrate, chickpea residues with low N content, as well as untreated controls. On the contrary, the positive correlation observed between NO and NO emissions in soils receiving compost and high N chickpea residues, suggest that the different treatments are differentially affecting the processes that are contributing to NO emissions in agricultural soils. These findings, emphasize that the different nutrient management schemes are differentially affecting the main process contributing to NO emissions in agricultural soils.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of environmental management
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A set of opposing, nonequilibrium reactions catalyzed by different enzymes which act simultaneously, with at least one of the reactions driven by ATP hydrolysis. The results of the cycle are that ATP energy is depleted, heat is produced and no net substrate-to-product conversion is achieved. Examples of substrate cycling are cycling of gluconeogenesis and glycolysis pathways and cycling of the triglycerides and fatty acid pathways. Rates of substrate cycling may be increased many-fold in association with hypermetabolic states resulting from severe burns, cold exposure, hyperthyroidism, or acute exercise.
The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.
Nitrate reduction process generally mediated by anaerobic bacteria by which nitrogen available to plants is converted to a gaseous form and lost from the soil or water column. It is a part of the nitrogen cycle.
The processes by which organisms use simple inorganic substances such as gaseous or dissolved carbon dioxide and inorganic nitrogen as nutrient sources. Contrasts with heterotrophic processes which make use of organic materials as the nutrient supply source. Autotrophs can be either chemoautotrophs (or chemolithotrophs), largely ARCHAEA and BACTERIA, which also use simple inorganic substances for their metabolic energy reguirements; or photoautotrophs (or photolithotrophs), such as PLANTS and CYANOBACTERIA, which derive their energy from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (autotrophy; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrient and energy requirements.
A form species of spore-producing CYANOBACTERIA, in the family Nostocaceae, order Nostocales. It is an important source of fixed NITROGEN in nutrient-depleted soils. When wet, it appears as a jelly-like mass.