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A striking feature of atherosclerosis is its highly non-uniform distribution within the arterial tree. This has been attributed to variation in the haemodynamic wall shear stress (WSS) experienced by endothelial cells, but the WSS characteristics that are important and the mechanisms by which they lead to disease remain subjects of intensive investigation despite decades of research. In vivo evidence suggests that multidirectional WSS is highly atherogenic. This possibility is increasingly being studied by culturing endothelial cells in wells that are swirled on an orbital shaker. The method is simple and cost effective, has high throughput and permits chronic exposure, but interpretation of the results can be difficult because the fluid mechanics are complex; hitherto, their description has largely been restricted to the engineering literature. Here we review the findings of such studies, which indicate that putatively atherogenic flow characteristics occur at the centre of the well whilst atheroprotective ones occur towards the edge, and we describe simple mathematical methods for choosing experimental variables that avoid resonance, wave breaking and uncovering of the cells. We additionally summarise a large number of studies showing that endothelium cultured at the centre of the well expresses more pro-inflammatory and fewer homeostatic genes, has higher permeability, proliferation, apoptosis and senescence, and shows more endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition than endothelium at the edge. This simple method, when correctly interpreted, has the potential to greatly increase our understanding of the homeostatic and pathogenic mechanobiology of endothelial cells and may help identify new therapeutic targets in vascular disease.
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A disease or symptom of disease spreading from the vicinity of the orbit to the internal structures of the orbit is referred to as an orbital complication. Orbital complications can have a traumatic...
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Mechanisms underlying Purkinje cell (PC) death, which leads to many diseases in humans, are still poorly elucidated. Progressive PC degeneration occurs in shaker mutant rat due to an X-linked recessiv...
A retrospective review to assess the performance and clinical predictive value of a novel software program (Maxillo) designed to perform complex volumetric analysis with application in the...
Systematic medical chart and imaging files review of patients presenting with non-lymphoma, non-thyroid-related orbital inflammation. The review aims at comparing the frequency of MRI infr...
Accuracy of posttraumatic orbital reconstruction of the meidal orbital wall and/or floor is better with preoperatively preformed orbital implants than with non-preformed orbital implants.
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The aim of this research study is to determine the effectiveness of: 1) a traditional therapy regimen focusing on individual exercises for pharyngeal (throat) and laryngeal (voice box) mus...
Review of the medical necessity of hospital or other health facility admissions, upon or within a short time following an admission, and periodic review of services provided during the course of treatment.
A nonspecific tumor-like inflammatory lesion in the ORBIT of the eye. It is usually composed of mature LYMPHOCYTES; PLASMA CELLS; MACROPHAGES; LEUKOCYTES with varying degrees of FIBROSIS. Orbital pseudotumors are often associated with inflammation of the extraocular muscles (ORBITAL MYOSITIS) or inflammation of the lacrimal glands (DACRYOADENITIS).
A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR), lymph vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, LYMPHATIC), and the serous cavities of the body.
Formal programs for assessing drug prescription against some standard. Drug utilization review may consider clinical appropriateness, cost effectiveness, and, in some cases, outcomes. Review is usually retrospective, but some analysis may be done before drugs are dispensed (as in computer systems which advise physicians when prescriptions are entered). Drug utilization review is mandated for Medicaid programs beginning in 1993.
Organizations representing designated geographic areas which have contracts under the PRO program to review the medical necessity, appropriateness, quality, and cost-effectiveness of care received by Medicare beneficiaries. Peer Review Improvement Act, PL 97-248, 1982.
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