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Autophagy pathways in the treatment of prion diseases.

08:00 EDT 13th May 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Autophagy pathways in the treatment of prion diseases."

Prions use cellular machineries for autocatalytic propagation by conformational conversion of the cellular prion protein into the pathological isoform PrP. Autophagy is a basic cellular degradation and recycling machinery that delivers cargo to lysosomes. Increase of autophagic flux in cells results in enhanced delivery of PrP in late endosomes to lysosomal degradation, providing a therapeutic target for prion diseases. Application of chemical enhancers of autophagy to cell or mouse models of prion infection provided a solid experimental proof-of-concept for this anti-prion strategy. In addition, increasing autophagy also reduces exosomal release of prions and transfer of prion infectivity between cells. Taken together, pharmacological induction of autophagy is a promising target for containing prion diseases, and ideal candidate for future combination therapies.

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Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Current opinion in pharmacology
ISSN: 1471-4973
Pages: 46-52

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Abnormal isoform of prion proteins (PRIONS) resulting from a posttranslational modification of the cellular prion protein (PRPC PROTEINS). PrPSc are disease-specific proteins seen in certain human and animal neurodegenerative diseases (PRION DISEASES).

A group of genetic, infectious, or sporadic degenerative human and animal nervous system disorders associated with abnormal PRIONS. These diseases are characterized by conversion of the normal prion protein to an abnormal configuration via a post-translational process. In humans, these conditions generally feature DEMENTIA; ATAXIA; and a fatal outcome. Pathologic features include a spongiform encephalopathy without evidence of inflammation. The older literature occasionally refers to these as unconventional SLOW VIRUS DISEASES. (From Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998 Nov 10;95(23):13363-83)

Proteins and enzymes that function, often as components of MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES, to assemble AUTOPHAGOSOMES and carry out AUTOPHAGY.

An autophagy related protein that is similar to UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYME E1. It functions in CYTOPLASM to VACUOLE transport (Cvt) and AUTOPHAGY by activating ATG12 PROTEIN for its conjugation with ATG5 PROTEIN, as well as the conjugation of ATG8 FAMILY PROTEINS with phosphatidylethanolamine for ATG8 association to Cvt vesicles and AUTOPHAGOSOME membranes. It is also required for the nitrogen starvation response in yeast, MITOPHAGY; and autophagic cell death induced by CASPASE 8 inhibition.

The inability to see or the loss or absence of perception of visual stimuli. This condition may be the result of EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; OPTIC CHIASM diseases; or BRAIN DISEASES affecting the VISUAL PATHWAYS or OCCIPITAL LOBE.

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