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The effects of earthworms on nitrogen transformation and the responsible functional genes during disposal of sewage sludge and rice straw were investigated in this study. Vermicomposting resulted in the lower pH and total organic carbon (TOC) compared to the control treatment without earthworms. Moreover, the presence of earthworms could promote the nitrogen mineralization and nitrification process in vermicomposting. Earthworms increased the activity of ammonia monooxygenase and abundance of amoA-nitrifier and reduced its diversity, whereas they reduced the density of nirS-denitrifying bacteria but enhanced its diversity. Nitrosospira was the dominant amoA-nitrifier and earthworms stimulated its growth in the vermicomposting. The presence of earthworms could also affect the community composition of nirS-denitrifying bacteria despite most of the nirS-denitrifier was not be classified at the genus level. In conclusion, the presence of earthworms had significant influence on the diversity and abundances of amoA and nirS genes and affect the nitrogen bio-transformation in vermicomposting.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Bioresource technology
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Small, monomeric GTP-binding proteins encoded by ras genes (GENES, RAS). The protooncogene-derived protein, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS), plays a role in normal cellular growth, differentiation and development. The oncogene-derived protein (ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS)) can play a role in aberrant cellular regulation during neoplastic cell transformation (CELL TRANSFORMATION, NEOPLASTIC). This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 184.108.40.206.
A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.
Genes that cause the epigenotype (i.e., the interrelated developmental pathways through which the adult organism is realized) to switch to an alternate cell lineage-related pathway. Switch complexes control the expression of normal functional development as well as oncogenic transformation.
The effects on gene expression that depend on the location of a gene with respect to its neighboring genes and region of chromosome. Stable position effects are sequence dependent. Variegated position effects depend on whether the gene is located in or adjacent to HETEROCHROMATIN or EUCHROMATIN.
Cellular proteins encoded by the c-mos genes (GENES, MOS). They function in the cell cycle to maintain MATURATION PROMOTING FACTOR in the active state and have protein-serine/threonine kinase activity. Oncogenic transformation can take place when c-mos proteins are expressed at the wrong time.