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The TLR-4/NF-κB signaling pathway activation in cochlear inflammation of rats with noise-induced hearing loss.

08:00 EDT 3rd May 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "The TLR-4/NF-κB signaling pathway activation in cochlear inflammation of rats with noise-induced hearing loss."

The TLR-4/NF-κB signaling pathway is involved in innate immunity and inflammation induced by trauma. The present study aimed to investigate possible TLR-4/NF-κB signaling pathway activation in the cochlea associated with acoustic trauma that might induce cochlear inflammation. A total of 72 rats were exposed to white noise at 120 dB SPL for 8 h per day repeated over 2 successive days. Auditory brainstem responses (ABR) were measured in animals before noise exposure and 0 d (PE0), 1 d (PE1), 3 d (PE3), 7 d (PE7), and 14 d (PE14) after noise exposure. At each defined time point, animals were sacrificed, and cochleae were collected to evaluate the expression levels of TLR4, MyD88, cytoplasmic NF-κB p65, IκBα, TNF-α, and IL-1β using western blotting and NF-κB p65 transcriptional activity using an NF-κB p65 Transcription Factor Assay Kit. Cochlear localizations of TLR-4, TNF-α and IL-1β were analyzed using immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded slices. The nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 was evaluated using immunofluorescence staining in paraffin-embedded slices. DNA fragmentation was measured with a TUNEL assay in paraffin-embedded slices. We found a stable permanent threshold shift after noise exposure. After noise exposure, expression levels of TLR-4, MyD88, IκBα, TNF-α, and IL-1β were significantly upregulated (PE3); DNA binding activity of NF-κB p65 was also significantly enhanced (PE3), while the cytoplasmic NF-κB p65 levels were unchanged. TLR-4, TNF-α, and IL-1β immunostaining intensities were substantially enhanced in spiral ganglion cells and spiral ligament fibrocytes after noise exposure (PE3). In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that the TLR-4/NF-κB signaling pathway is activated in noise-exposed cochleae and that it participates in noise-induced cochlear inflammation.

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This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Hearing research
ISSN: 1878-5891
Pages: 59-68

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

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The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.

A 53-kDa protein that is a positive regulator of the alternate pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It stabilizes the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb) and protects it from rapid inactivation, thus facilitating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and the formation of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Individuals with mutation in the PFC gene exhibit properdin deficiency and have a high susceptibility to infections.

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An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.

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