Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
The TLR-4/NF-κB signaling pathway is involved in innate immunity and inflammation induced by trauma. The present study aimed to investigate possible TLR-4/NF-κB signaling pathway activation in the cochlea associated with acoustic trauma that might induce cochlear inflammation. A total of 72 rats were exposed to white noise at 120 dB SPL for 8 h per day repeated over 2 successive days. Auditory brainstem responses (ABR) were measured in animals before noise exposure and 0 d (PE0), 1 d (PE1), 3 d (PE3), 7 d (PE7), and 14 d (PE14) after noise exposure. At each defined time point, animals were sacrificed, and cochleae were collected to evaluate the expression levels of TLR4, MyD88, cytoplasmic NF-κB p65, IκBα, TNF-α, and IL-1β using western blotting and NF-κB p65 transcriptional activity using an NF-κB p65 Transcription Factor Assay Kit. Cochlear localizations of TLR-4, TNF-α and IL-1β were analyzed using immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded slices. The nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 was evaluated using immunofluorescence staining in paraffin-embedded slices. DNA fragmentation was measured with a TUNEL assay in paraffin-embedded slices. We found a stable permanent threshold shift after noise exposure. After noise exposure, expression levels of TLR-4, MyD88, IκBα, TNF-α, and IL-1β were significantly upregulated (PE3); DNA binding activity of NF-κB p65 was also significantly enhanced (PE3), while the cytoplasmic NF-κB p65 levels were unchanged. TLR-4, TNF-α, and IL-1β immunostaining intensities were substantially enhanced in spiral ganglion cells and spiral ligament fibrocytes after noise exposure (PE3). In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that the TLR-4/NF-κB signaling pathway is activated in noise-exposed cochleae and that it participates in noise-induced cochlear inflammation.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Hearing research
PM2.5 pollution has been associated with numerous adverse effects including cardiovascular, respiratory and metabolic diseases as well as emotional disorders. However, the potential mechanism has not ...
Purinergic signaling is deeply involved in the development, functions and protective mechanisms of the cochlea. Release of ATP and activation of purinergic receptors on sensory and supporting/epitheli...
The Janus activated kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal transducer and the activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway are involved in many physiological processes, such as cell survival, inflammation, developmen...
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) comprise a number of heterogeneous neurodevelopmental diseases. Recent studies suggest that the abnormal transmission of neural signaling pathways is associated with t...
The cochlear nucleus, located in the brainstem, receives its afferent auditory input exclusively from the auditory nerve fibers of the ipsilateral cochlea. Noise-induced neurodegenerative changes occu...
The goal of this study is to take into account channel interaction in the cochlear implant (CI) fitting process. Designing a fast and accurate method of measurement would help to customize...
The purpose of this study is to determine whether speech recognition in noise can be improved by the addition of a special listening program to the sound processor. Thus we propose to asse...
The purpose of this study is to understand the speech perception in noise and in quiet and localization benefits in a laboratory setting in listeners that receive a cochlear implant in an ...
Poor ovarian response (POR) is one of the major therapeutic challenges in in vitro fertilization. Several therapeutic approaches for POR have been explored; yet, a single effective strateg...
Speech understanding in noise remains the greatest challenge for people using cochlear implants, particularly when the speech of interest comes from the side of the head opposite to the im...
A complex signaling pathway whose name is derived from the DROSOPHILA Wg gene, which when mutated results in the wingless phenotype, and the vertebrate INT gene, which is located near integration sites of MOUSE MAMMARY TUMOR VIRUS. The signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of WNT PROTEINS to cells surface WNT RECEPTORS which interact with the AXIN SIGNALING COMPLEX and an array of second messengers that influence the actions of BETA CATENIN.
The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.
A 53-kDa protein that is a positive regulator of the alternate pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It stabilizes the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb) and protects it from rapid inactivation, thus facilitating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and the formation of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Individuals with mutation in the PFC gene exhibit properdin deficiency and have a high susceptibility to infections.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
Hearing, auditory perception, or audition is the ability to perceive sound by detecting vibrations, changes in the pressure of the surrounding medium through time, through an organ such as the ear. Sound may be heard through solid, liquid, or gaseous mat...
Allergies Automimmune Disease Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Immunology Vaccine Immunology is the study of immunity and the defence mechanisms of the body. A greater understanding of immunology is needed to develop vaccines, understand ...
Cytokine Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNF)
TNF is a compound that is classified as a cytokine which plays a central role in the cellular mechanisms of apoptosis or cell death. However, there are a number of different kinds of TNF, just under twenty, but the family of molecules have very similar a...