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This article focuses on the relevance of amorphous calcium (and magnesium) phosphates in living organisms. Although crystalline calcium phosphate (CaP)-based materials are known to constitute the major inorganic constituents of human hard tissues, amorphous CaP-based structures, often in combination with magnesium, are frequently employed by Nature to build up components of our body and guarantee their proper functioning. After a brief description of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) formation mechanism and structure, this paper is focused on the stabilization strategies that can be used to enhance the lifetime of the poorly stable amorphous phase. The various locations of our body in which ACP (pure or in combination with Mg) can be found (i.e. bone, enamel, small intestine, calciprotein particles and casein micelles) are highlighted, showing how the amorphous nature of ACP is often of paramount importance for the achievement of a specific physiological function. The last section is devoted to ACP-based biomaterials, focusing on how these materials differ from their crystalline counterparts in terms of biological response.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Advances in colloid and interface science
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A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of magnesium in the diet, characterized by anorexia, nausea, vomiting, lethargy, and weakness. Symptoms are paresthesias, muscle cramps, irritability, decreased attention span, and mental confusion, possibly requiring months to appear. Deficiency of body magnesium can exist even when serum values are normal. In addition, magnesium deficiency may be organ-selective, since certain tissues become deficient before others. (Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p1936)
A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.
Pathological processes of the PARATHYROID GLANDS. They usually manifest as hypersecretion or hyposecretion of PARATHYROID HORMONE that regulates the balance of CALCIUM; PHOSPHORUS; and MAGNESIUM in the body.
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Biological therapy involves the use of living organisms, substances derived from living organisms, or laboratory-produced versions of such substances to treat disease. Some biological therapies for cancer use vaccines or bacteria to stimulate the body&rs...