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In order to better understand the occurrence of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in tap water and their real impacts on consumers, this study made a one-year long survey of the temporal variations of a series of DBPs before and after a point-of-use (POU) treatment facility installed in a building serving for ∼300 people. Water samples were collected every week at a fixed location and time for 1 year, and frequent samplings were carried out every 6 h a day for 1 month at selected seasons, which ultimately amounted to 322 samples. The results show that the concentrations of DBPs were higher in the summer than other seasons, with the lowest DBP levels being observed in spring. Within one week, higher levels of haloacetic acids (HAAs) were identified on weekdays than those on weekends. Diurnally, trihalomethanes, HAAs, and haloacetaldehydes were found to be higher at noon but lower in the evening. Consistent with other studies, the variations of most DBPs were somewhat positively related to the changes of temperature and organic matter, but negatively related to the quantity of free chlorine. With the use of a POU facility, which equips with two activated carbon cartridges and a boiler in sequence, most of DBPs were dramatically reduced, leading to 62-100% lower cytotoxicity for the measured DBPs. The study hence provides a real-water evidence about the DBP occurrences in a typical distribution system endpoint and the efficiency of a typical POU on mitigating DBP risks.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Water research
It is necessary and important to investigate the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in water treatment systems for the management of disinfection formation risk. In the present study, the for...
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The sum total of measures taken and regulatory policies enacted to ensure the safe use of consumer products.
The field devoted in Informatics from multiple consumer or patient views.
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Stretches of genomic DNA that exist in different multiples between individuals. Many copy number variations have been associated with susceptibility or resistance to disease.