Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), a (-) ssRNA virus belonging to the genus Novirhabdovirus of rhabdoviridae family, is the aetiological agent of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) disease which causes huge economic losses in farmed olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and significant mortalities among several other marine fish species in Korea, Japan, and China. Previously, we developed an inactivated vaccine viz., formalin-inactivated VHSV mixed with squalene as adjuvant which was effective in conferring protective immunity (58-76% relative percentage survival) against VHSV but the mode of administration was intraperitoneal injection which is not feasible for small sized fingerling fish. To overcome this limitation, we presently focused on replacing the injection route of vaccine delivery by oral and immersion routes. In this context, we encapsulated the inactivated VHSV vaccine with chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs-IV) by water-in-oil (W/O) emulsification method. After encapsulation, two sets of in vivo vaccination trials were conducted viz., preliminary trial-I and final trial-II. In preliminary trial-I, olive flounder fingerlings (10.5 ± 1.7 g) were vaccinated with CNPs-IV by different delivery strategies involving oral and immersion routes (single/booster dose) followed by challenge with VHSV (1 × 10 TCID virus/fish) to evaluate an effective method amongst different applied delivery strategies. Subsequently, a final trial-II was conducted to better understand the immune mechanism behind the efficacy of the employed delivery strategy and also to further improvise the delivery mechanism with prime-boost (primary immersion and oral boosting) combination in order to improve the transient anti-VHSV response in the host. Evaluation of RPS analysis in trial-I revealed higher RPS of 46.7% and 53.3% in the CNPs-IV (immersion) and CNPs-IV (immersion/immersion) groups, respectively compared to 0% RPS in the CNPs-IV (oral) group and 20% RPS in the CNPs-IV (oral/oral) group when calculated against 100% cumulative mortality percentage in the NVC (non-vaccinated challenged) control group, whereas, in the trial-II, RPS of 60% and 66.6% were obtained for CNPs-IV (immersion/immersion) and CNPs-IV (immersion/oral) groups, respectively. In addition, specific (anti-VHSV) antibody titre in the fish sera, skin mucus and intestinal mucus of the immunized groups were significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced following vaccination. Furthermore, CNPs-IV immunized fish showed significant (p < 0.05) upregulation of different immune gene transcripts (IgM, IgT, pIgR, MHC-I, MHC-II, IFN-γ, and Caspase3) compared to control, in both the systemic (kidney) and mucosal (skin and intestine) immune compartments of the host post immunization as well as post challenge. To conclude, mucosal immunization with CNPs-IV vaccine can orchestrate an effective immunization strategy in organizing a coordinative immune response against VHSV in olive flounder thereby exhibiting higher protective efficacy to the host with minimum stress.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Fish & shellfish immunology
Intestinal Immunity to Poliovirus Following Sequential Trivalent Inactivated Polio Vaccine/Bivalent Oral Polio Vaccine and Trivalent Inactivated Polio Vaccine-only Immunization Schedules: Analysis of an Open-label, Randomized, Controlled Trial in Chilean Infants.
Identifying polio vaccine regimens that can elicit robust intestinal mucosal immunity and interrupt viral transmission is a key priority of the polio endgame.
The alarming rise of morbidity and mortality caused by influenza pandemics and epidemics has drawn attention worldwide since the last few decades. This life-threatening problem necessitates the develo...
Novel chitosan-quinoline nanoparticles as anticancer drug nanocarriers were prepared using 2-chloro-3-formylquinoline and 3-formylquinolin-2(1H)-one as non-toxic modifying agents via oil-in-water nano...
To evaluate the immunological response following vaccination, 40 WNV serologically negative horses were selected and divided in two groups of 20 animals. One group was vaccinated (booster after 28 day...
Since the application of chitosan magnetic cationic microspheres in brain drug delivery by Gallo in 1993, chitosan has been extensively studied in brain drug delivery. As the only natural alkaline pol...
Aim of the present study is to assess the in vivo susceptibility of root canal bacteria to Chitosan,Chitosan nanoparticles ,and Chlorhexidine gluconate when used as intra canal medicaments...
A randomized clinical trial that aims to study the effect of chitosan nanoparticles (CS-np) versus sodium hypochlorite as a root canal irrigant on postoperative pain and antibacterial acti...
Study of the safety and immunogenicity (antibody producing capability) comparing inactivated influenza vaccine to placebo given to infants at 2 and 3 months of age. Infants will receive i...
Multicentric study, Phase III; this study is a randomized, participant- and observer-blind, parallel group evaluation to evaluate the immunogenicity, relative efficacy, safety and reactoge...
The purpose of this study was to evaluated the effectiveness of inactivated poliovirus vaccine at a vaccine schedule that is commonly used in developing countries. The effectiveness of in...
Vaccines used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS. They include inactivated (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, INACTIVATED) and oral vaccines (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, ORAL).
A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.
A combined vaccine used to prevent infection with diphtheria and tetanus toxoid. This is used in place of DTP vaccine (DIPHTHERIA-TETANUS-PERTUSSIS VACCINE) when PERTUSSIS VACCINE is contraindicated.
A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism, and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins or one ...
Sepsis, septicaemia and blood poisoning
Septicaemia (another name for blood poisoning) refers to a bacterial infection of the blood, whereas sepsis can also be caused by viral or fungal infections. Sepsis is not just limited to the blood and can affect the whole body, including the organ...
Antiretroviral Therapy Clostridium Difficile Ebola HIV & AIDS Infectious Diseases Influenza Malaria Measles Sepsis Swine Flu Tropical Medicine Tuberculosis Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic...