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Nanoencapsulation of inactivated-viral vaccine using chitosan nanoparticles: Evaluation of its protective efficacy and immune modulatory effects in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) against viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) infection.

08:00 EDT 13th May 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Nanoencapsulation of inactivated-viral vaccine using chitosan nanoparticles: Evaluation of its protective efficacy and immune modulatory effects in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) against viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) infection."

Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), a (-) ssRNA virus belonging to the genus Novirhabdovirus of rhabdoviridae family, is the aetiological agent of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) disease which causes huge economic losses in farmed olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and significant mortalities among several other marine fish species in Korea, Japan, and China. Previously, we developed an inactivated vaccine viz., formalin-inactivated VHSV mixed with squalene as adjuvant which was effective in conferring protective immunity (58-76% relative percentage survival) against VHSV but the mode of administration was intraperitoneal injection which is not feasible for small sized fingerling fish. To overcome this limitation, we presently focused on replacing the injection route of vaccine delivery by oral and immersion routes. In this context, we encapsulated the inactivated VHSV vaccine with chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs-IV) by water-in-oil (W/O) emulsification method. After encapsulation, two sets of in vivo vaccination trials were conducted viz., preliminary trial-I and final trial-II. In preliminary trial-I, olive flounder fingerlings (10.5 ± 1.7 g) were vaccinated with CNPs-IV by different delivery strategies involving oral and immersion routes (single/booster dose) followed by challenge with VHSV (1 × 10 TCID virus/fish) to evaluate an effective method amongst different applied delivery strategies. Subsequently, a final trial-II was conducted to better understand the immune mechanism behind the efficacy of the employed delivery strategy and also to further improvise the delivery mechanism with prime-boost (primary immersion and oral boosting) combination in order to improve the transient anti-VHSV response in the host. Evaluation of RPS analysis in trial-I revealed higher RPS of 46.7% and 53.3% in the CNPs-IV (immersion) and CNPs-IV (immersion/immersion) groups, respectively compared to 0% RPS in the CNPs-IV (oral) group and 20% RPS in the CNPs-IV (oral/oral) group when calculated against 100% cumulative mortality percentage in the NVC (non-vaccinated challenged) control group, whereas, in the trial-II, RPS of 60% and 66.6% were obtained for CNPs-IV (immersion/immersion) and CNPs-IV (immersion/oral) groups, respectively. In addition, specific (anti-VHSV) antibody titre in the fish sera, skin mucus and intestinal mucus of the immunized groups were significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced following vaccination. Furthermore, CNPs-IV immunized fish showed significant (p < 0.05) upregulation of different immune gene transcripts (IgM, IgT, pIgR, MHC-I, MHC-II, IFN-γ, and Caspase3) compared to control, in both the systemic (kidney) and mucosal (skin and intestine) immune compartments of the host post immunization as well as post challenge. To conclude, mucosal immunization with CNPs-IV vaccine can orchestrate an effective immunization strategy in organizing a coordinative immune response against VHSV in olive flounder thereby exhibiting higher protective efficacy to the host with minimum stress.

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This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Fish & shellfish immunology
ISSN: 1095-9947
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