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Nanogels are three-dimensional nanoscale networks formed by physically or chemically cross-linking polymers. Nanogels have been explored as drug delivery systems due to their advantageous properties, such as biocompatibility, high stability, tunable particle size, drug loading capacity, and possible modification of the surface for active targeting by attaching ligands that recognize cognate receptors on the target cells or tissues. Nanogels can be designed to be stimulus responsive, and react to internal or external stimuli such as pH, temperature, light and redox, thus resulting in the controlled release of loaded drugs. This "smart" targeting ability prevents drug accumulation in non-target tissues and minimizes the side effects of the drug. This review aims to provide an introduction to nanogels, their preparation methods,and to discuss the design of various stimulus-responsive nanogels that are able to provide controlled drug release in response to particular stimuli. STATEMENT OF
Smart and stimulus-responsive drug delivery is a rapidly growing area of biomaterial research. The explosive rise in nanotechnology and nanomedicine, has provided a host of nanoparticles and nanovehicles which may bewilder the uninitiated reader. This review will lay out the evidence that polymeric nanogels have an important role to play in the design of innovative drug delivery vehicles that respond to internal and external stimuli such as temperature, pH, redox, and light.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Acta biomaterialia
The present review focuses on the description of the design, synthesis and physico-chemical and biological evaluation of polymer nanogels. Nanogels are robust swollen cross-linked polymer nanoparticle...
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Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
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Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)
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