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Chemoresistance poses a major challenge in cancer treatment. This study aims to investigate whether intracellular drug delivery using hyaluronic acid (HA) functionalised pH-sensitive liposomes (HA-pSL) can circumvent gemcitabine resistance in pancreatic cancer (PC). HA-pSL were obtained by covalently conjugating HA with preformed pSL. A resistant PC cell line Gr2000 was developed by exposing MIA PaCa-2 cells to gemcitabine, and characterised for their expression of CD44, a receptor for HA, and drug transporters. Cellular uptake and intracellular trafficking of liposomes were determined by confocal microscopy and HPLC analysis of intracellular drug content. Following a pharmacokinetic study in rats, anti-tumour efficacy was compared between MIA PaCa-2 and Gr2000 xenograft mouse models. HA-pSL with an HA density of 179 μg/μmol had a larger size (152.3 vs 136.3 nm), and higher zeta potential (-46.8 vs -10.5 mV) than pSL. The sensitivity of Gr2000 to gemcitabine reduced 444 times compared to its parental cell line, despite no change to the total drug influx, as drug influx- and efflux-transporters in Gr2000 cells were simultaneously up-regulated. Both cell lines had high expression of CD44. HA facilitated cell uptake without compromising the endosome-escape ability of pSL as evidenced by confocal images and co-localization analysis of the dual-fluorescence labelled liposomes and Lysotracker. HA-pSL significantly outperformed pSL, and increased cellular drug influx by 3.6 times in MIA PaCa-2 cells, and 4.6 times in Gr2000 cells. Both liposomes improved the pharmacokinetic profile of free drug. HA-pSL treatment was superior to pSL, and resulted in 6.4 times smaller tumours (weight) in the MIA PaCa-2 xenograft models, and 3.1 smaller in the Gr2000 models compared with the free drug. Taken together, this study highlighted the use of intracellular delivery strategies (HA-CD44 interaction and endosome escape) to overcome gemcitabine resistance, however, the overall improvement was marginal and tumours still existed. Further improvement in delivery efficiency of HA-pSL to target tumours and additional manipulation of the cellular metabolism of gemcitabine are needed to tackle chemoresistance.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society
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Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
A standardized nomenclature for clinical drugs and drug delivery devices. It links its names to many of the drug vocabularies commonly used in pharmacy management.
Materials such as COLLAGEN or HYALURONIC ACID that are injected or deposited into the DERMIS for the purpose of skin augmentation.
<!--LGfEGNT2Lhm-->Drug delivery is the method or process of administering a pharmaceutical compound to achieve a therapeutic effect in humans or animals. <!--LGfEGNT2Lhm-->Drug delivery technologies are <!--LGfEGNT2Lhm-->patent pr...
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