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Spatio-temporally controlled drug release based on conducting polymer films offers a powerful technology to improve the tissue integration for implantable neuroprobes. We here explore the release efficiency of such systems in order to improve the understanding of the release mechanism and allow for optimized implementation of this technology into future drug release applications. By exposing drug loaded PEDOT coatings of different thicknesses to a multitude of release signals, along with optimizing the steps during the polymer synthesis, we could identify a highly reproducible electrostatically controlled drug release next to a slow diffusion driven release component. The release efficiency was moreover observed to be higher for a cyclic voltammetry signal in comparison to release driven by a constant potential. Biphasic current pulses, as used during neural stimulation, did not allow for long enough diffusion times to yield efficient active drug expulsion from the polymer films. A quantitative analysis could confirm an overall linear dependency between drug release and film thickness. The amount of drug released in response to the trigger signals was however not linearly correlated with the amount of charge applied. By combining these findings we could develop a model which accurately describes the drug release mechanism from a PEDOT film. The proposed model thereby points the way for how actively controlled, and diffusion related, release can be tuned for obtaining delivery dynamics tailored to specific applications.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society
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Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
Works consisting of nonfiction films and video designed to teach, instruct, or train. (From Moving Image Materials: Genre Terms, 1988)
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Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
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