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Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) is a novel factor with controversial effects on cardiac hypertrophy both in vivo and in vitro. Although recent evidence has corroborated that GDF11 prevents the development of cardiac hypertrophy, its molecular mechanism remains unclear. In our previous work, we showed that norepinephrine (NE), a physiological pro-hypertrophic agent, increases cytoplasmic Ca levels accompanied by a loss of physical and functional communication between sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and mitochondria, with a subsequent reduction in the mitochondrial Ca uptake and mitochondrial metabolism. In order to study the anti-hypertrophic mechanism of GDF11, our aim was to investigate whether GDF11 prevents the loss of SR-mitochondria communication triggered by NE. Our results show that: a) GDF11 prevents hypertrophy in cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes treated with NE. b) GDF11 attenuates the NE-induced loss of contact sites between both organelles. c) GDF11 increases oxidative mitochondrial metabolism by stimulating mitochondrial Ca uptake. In conclusion, the GDF11-dependent maintenance of physical and functional communication between SR and mitochondria is critical to allow Ca transfer between both organelles and energy metabolism in the cardiomyocyte and to avoid the activation of Ca-dependent pro-hypertrophic signaling pathways.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Pharmacological research
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Calcium-transporting ATPases that catalyze the active transport of CALCIUM into the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM vesicles from the CYTOPLASM. They are primarily found in MUSCLE CELLS and play a role in the relaxation of MUSCLES.
A methylpyrrole-carboxylate from RYANIA that disrupts the RYANODINE RECEPTOR CALCIUM RELEASE CHANNEL to modify CALCIUM release from SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM resulting in alteration of MUSCLE CONTRACTION. It was previously used in INSECTICIDES. It is used experimentally in conjunction with THAPSIGARGIN and other inhibitors of CALCIUM ATPASE uptake of calcium into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
A type of endoplasmic reticulum lacking associated ribosomes on the membrane surface. It exhibits a wide range of specialized metabolic functions including supplying enzymes for steroid synthesis, detoxification, and glycogen breakdown. In muscle cells, smooth endoplasmic reticulum is called SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.
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