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In omission contingency training, rodents learn to suppress their natural tendency to approach or touch a reward-predictive cue (termed "autoshaping" or "sign-tracking" responses) if the approach/touching responses lead to the omission of the reward. Previous research has shown that high levels of alcohol exposure (through alcohol vapor exposure) or adolescent alcohol consumption (with some versions of the omission contingency task) can lead to faster omission contingency learning. However, the alcohol exposure procedures and/or omission contingency task parameters differed between these different demonstrations. It was unclear whether the same voluntary alcohol consumption procedures during adolescence/early adulthood and/or adulthood would lead to faster omission contingency learning in one or both age groups. Here, rats received 6 weeks of chronic intermittent access to 20% alcohol or water from PND 26-66 (adolescence/early adulthood in Exp. 1) or PND 68-108 (adulthood in Exp. 2) and began behavioral training (autoshaping training followed by omission contingency training) 10-17 days later. We found no evidence that alcohol access at either age altered the number of trials with a sign-tracking response on the levers during autoshaping training. However, alcohol access during adolescence/early adulthood, but not during adulthood, led to faster learning to withhold responding on the lever under omission contingencies during the subsequent phase. We also found no evidence that the level of alcohol consumption was correlated with sign-tracking behavior in the autoshaping phase or with the suppression of lever-pressing during the omission contingency phase. Our results suggest that adolescent/early adulthood rats have increased vulnerability, compared with adults, to some long-term behavioral effects of voluntary alcohol consumption.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Behavioural brain research
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A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
A personality disorder characterized by a pervasive and excessive need to be taken care of that leads to submissive and clinging behavior and fears of separation, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
A personality disorder marked by a pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. (DSM-IV)
A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-IV)
A dominantly inherited muscle disease that begins in early childhood and is characterized by severe myotonia (delayed relaxation of a muscle) after forceful voluntary contractions. Muscular hypertrophy is common and myotonia may impair ambulation and other movements. Myotonia typically becomes less severe with repetitive voluntary contractions of the affected muscles. Generalized myotonia (of Becker) is an autosomal recessive variant of myotonia congenita that may feature more severe myotonia and muscle wasting. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1476-7; Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch53, p18)