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It has been shown that ischemia of remote organs can generate resistance to ischemic conditions within sensitive brain tissues. However, only limited information about its mechanism is available. In the present paper, we used hind-limb ischemia by tourniquet to generate early remote ischemic tolerance in rats. The main objective was to investigate the role of glutamate in the process of neuroprotection and discover parameters that are affected in the blood of ischemia-affected animals. Our results showed that pretreatment with a hind-limb tourniquet caused a decrease in neurodegeneration by about 30%. However, we did not observe neurological deficit recovery. When compared to ischemia, glutamate concentration decreased in all observed brain regions (cortex, CA1 and dentate gyrus of hippocampus), regardless of their sensitivity to blood restrictions. In contrast to this, the blood levels raised significantly from 26% to 29% during the first four days of postischemic reperfusion. Pretreatment of animals reduced systemic oxidative stress-as represented by lymphocytic DNA damage-by about 80%, while changes in blood antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase) were not detected. With these data we can further hypothesize that hind-limb-tourniquet preconditioning could accelerate brain-to-blood efflux of glutamate which could positively impact neuronal survival of ischemia-affected brain regions. Moreover, remote preconditioning improved systemic oxidative stress and did not seem to be affected by enzymatic antioxidant defenses in the blood.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Neurochemistry international
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