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Almonds and peanuts are a rich source of proteins, vitamins and unsaturated fatty acids. However, they can be also contaminated by mycotoxigenic fungi; a reason that has enhanced to investigate efficient strategies of management of these fungal contaminations. Some Lactic acid bacteria have been proven capable of inhibiting growth and mycotoxin production in livestock and transform it into nontoxic derivatives. In this work, four lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were tested for their abilities to inhibit the growth and mycotoxin production of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus carbonarius. Antifungal activity was evaluated in agar medium as well as in almonds and peanuts. Results showed that LAB significantly inhibited Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus carbonarius in agar medium but none of the strains were able to completely inhibit fungal growth. The highest fungal growth inhibition was obtained using L. kefiri FR7 (51.67% and 45.56% growth inhibition of A. flavus and A. carbonarius, respectively). The cell-free supernatants (CFS) from LAB reduced fungal growth with average growth inhibitions ranging from 13.33% to 40.56% and 12.78% to 37.78% for A. flavus and A. carbonarius, respectively. We noted also that cell-free supernatants at pH7 (CFS-pH7) from the entire tested LAB did not inhibit fungal growth. L. kefiri FR7 was the most effective strain in mycotoxin suppression with a reduction percentage reaching 97.22%, 95.27% and 75.26% for AFB1, AFB2 and OTA respectively. Moreover, the inoculation of L. kefiri FR7 in almonds artificially contaminated with A. flavus decrease 85.27% of AFB1 and 83.94% of AFB2 content after 7 days of incubation. On the other hand, application of L. kefiri FR7 in peanuts artificially contaminated with A. carbonarius reduced OTA content to 25%. Our study revealed the potential use and application of L. kefiri FR7 in the control of fungi growth and mycotoxins production in almonds and peanuts.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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A species of imperfect fungi which grows on peanuts and other plants and produces the carcinogenic substance aflatoxin. It is also used in the production of the antibiotic flavicin.
Infections of the nervous system caused by fungi of the genus ASPERGILLUS, most commonly ASPERGILLUS FUMIGATUS. Aspergillus infections may occur in immunocompetent hosts, but are more prevalent in individuals with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES. The organism may spread to the nervous system from focal infections in the lung, mastoid region, sinuses, inner ear, bones, eyes, gastrointestinal tract, and heart. Sinus infections may be locally invasive and enter the intracranial compartment, producing MENINGITIS, FUNGAL; cranial neuropathies; and abscesses in the frontal lobes of the brain. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch 27, pp62-3)
Hypersensitivity reaction (ALLERGIC REACTION) to fungus ASPERGILLUS in an individual with long-standing BRONCHIAL ASTHMA. It is characterized by pulmonary infiltrates, EOSINOPHILIA, elevated serum IMMUNOGLOBULIN E, and skin reactivity to Aspergillus antigen.
A potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of fungi. It is also mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes immunosuppression in animals. It is found as a contaminant in peanuts, cottonseed meal, corn, and other grains. The mycotoxin requires epoxidation to aflatoxin B1 2,3-oxide for activation. Microsomal monooxygenases biotransform the toxin to the less toxic metabolites aflatoxin M1 and Q1.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped LACTIC ACID bacteria that is frequently used as starter culture in SILAGE fermentation, sourdough, and lactic-acid-fermented types of beer and wine.
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