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Units of measurement (e.g., metre, week, gram) are critically important concepts in everyday life. Little is known about how knowledge of units is represented in the brain or how this relates to other forms of semantic knowledge. As unit terms are intimately connected with numerical quantity, we might expect knowledge for these concepts to be supported by parietally-mediated representations of space, time and magnitude. We investigated knowledge for measurement units in patients with posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), who display profound impairments of spatial and numerical cognition associated with occipital and parietal lobe atrophy. Relative to healthy controls, PCA patients displayed impairments for a range of unit-based knowledge, including the ability to specify the dimension which a unit refers to (e.g., grams measure mass), to select the appropriate units to measure everyday quantities (grams for sugar) and to determine the relative magnitudes of different unit terms (gram is smaller than kilogram). In most cases, their performance was also significantly poorer than a patient control group diagnosed with typical Alzheimer's disease. Our results suggest that impairment to systems that code numerical and spatial magnitudes has an effect on non-numerical verbal knowledge for measurement units. Units of measurement appear to lie at the intersection of the brain's verbal and numerical semantic systems, making them a critical class of concepts in which to investigate how magnitude-based codes contribute to verbal semantic representation.
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The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The heat flow across a surface per unit area per unit time, divided by the negative of the rate of change of temperature with distance in a direction perpendicular to the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A test to determine the lowest sound intensity level at which fifty percent or more of the spondaic test words (words of two syllables having equal stress) are repeated correctly.
Terms or expressions which provide the major means of access by subject to the bibliographic unit.
Loss or impairment of the ability to write (letters, syllables, words, or phrases) due to an injury to a specific cerebral area or occasionally due to emotional factors. This condition rarely occurs in isolation, and often accompanies APHASIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p485; APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
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Neurology - Central Nervous System (CNS)
Alzheimer's Disease Anesthesia Anxiety Disorders Autism Bipolar Disorders Dementia Epilepsy Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Neurology Pain Parkinson's Disease Sleep Disorders Neurology is the branch of me...