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The biodiversity of food webs is composed of horizontal (i.e. within trophic levels) and vertical diversity (i.e. the number of trophic levels). Understanding their joint effect on stability is a key challenge. Theory mostly considers their individual effects and focuses on small perturbations near equilibrium in hypothetical food webs. Here, we study the joint effects of horizontal and vertical diversity on the stability of hypothetical (modelled) and empirical food webs. In modelled food webs, horizontal and vertical diversity increased and decreased stability, respectively, with a stronger positive effect of producer diversity on stability at higher consumer diversity. Experiments with an empirical plankton food web, where we manipulated horizontal and vertical diversity and measured stability from species interactions and from resilience against large perturbations, confirmed these predictions. Taken together, our findings highlight the need to conserve horizontal biodiversity at different trophic levels to ensure stability.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Ecology letters
It has been shown that people process assortment variety more efficiently in horizontal displays than in vertical displays, owing to human visual characteristics that favor the horizontal direction. C...
Woodlice placed in an unknown experimental enclosure typically run (horizontal exploration) and rear up on the enclosure's walls (vertical exploration). Previous findings with Porcellio scaber indicat...
The horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) and empirical transfer function analyses were performed on the S-wave recordings from two vertical borehole strong motion arrays: the Garner Valley Dow...
Vertical and horizontal guided bone regeneration with nonresorbable membranes is a regenerative alternative for treating bone defects in edentulous zones. Its indication and good outcomes have been co...
Viroids can be transmitted vertically and/or horizontally by pollen. Tomato planta macho viroid (TPMVd) has a high rate of horizontal transmission by pollen, whereas potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd...
The goal of this study is to evaluate the agreement between intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements taken by iCare, held in both vertical and horizontal positions. In addition, iCare measu...
Drawing on a vertical surface, such as a blackboard (rather than a horizontal surface) is often used by occupational therapists as a way of developing fine motor control and visual motor i...
Atrophic ridge augmentation utilizing guided bone regeneration (GBR) has become a major treatment option to provide optimal bone support for osseointegrated dental implants. GBR was initia...
This study has been designed as a prospective randomized trial to be performed at Bridgeport Hospital. Patients planning to undergo a laparoscopic or robotically assisted total laparoscopi...
Introduction. The most popular injuries in volleyball are the ones who occur in knee joints, due the jumps and landings that happen through the game. For this reason there is a high index ...
Surgical procedures involving the STOMACH and sometimes the lower ESOPHAGUS to correct anatomical defects, or to treat MORBID OBESITY by reducing the size of the stomach. There are several subtypes of bariatric gastroplasty, such as vertical banded gastroplasty, silicone ring vertical gastroplasty, and horizontal banded gastroplasty.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
A registration of any positional relationship of the mandible in reference to the maxillae. These records may be any of the many vertical, horizontal, or orientation relations. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry)
A family of bisegmented, double-stranded RNA viruses causing infection in fish, mollusks, fowl, and Drosophila. There are three genera: AQUABIRNAVIRUS; AVIBIRNAVIRUS; and ENTOMOBIRNAVIRUS. Horizontal and vertical transmission occurs for all viruses.
The length of the face determined by the distance of separation of jaws. Occlusal vertical dimension (OVD or VDO) or contact vertical dimension is the lower face height with the teeth in centric occlusion. Rest vertical dimension (VDR) is the lower face height measured from a chin point to a point just below the nose, with the mandible in rest position. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p250)
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism ...
Arthritis Fibromyalgia Gout Lupus Rheumatic Rheumatology is the medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and management of disease involving joints, tendons, muscles, ligaments and associated structures (Oxford Medical Diction...