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Numerous molecular processes conduct epigenetic regulation of protein transcription to maintain cell specification. In this review, we discuss molecular mechanisms of the Polycomb group (PcG) of proteins and its enzymatic role in epigenetics. More specifically, we focus on the Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) and the effects of its repressive marker. We have compiled information regarding the biological structure and how that impacts the stability of the complex. In addition, we examined functions of the individual core proteins of PRC2 in relation to the accessory proteins that interact with the complex. Lastly, we discuss the implications of unregulated and downregulated PRC2 activity in Alzheimer's disease and cancer and possible methods of treatment related to PRC2 regulation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Protein science : a publication of the Protein Society
The polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) is a chromatin-associated methyltransferase catalyzing mono-, di-, and trimethylation of lysine 27 on histone H3 (H3K27). This activity is required for normal ...
Since little is known about the effect of caffeine, one of the most widely consumed substances worldwide, on intestinal function; we aimed to study its action on intestinal anion secretion and the und...
Cellular function depends on heterogeneous dynamic intra-, inter-, and supramolecular structure-function relationships. However, the specific mechanisms by which cellular function is transduced from m...
Epigenetic gene regulation ensures the mitotically or meiotically stable heritability (or both) of gene expression or protein activity states and maintains repetitive element repression and cellular i...
Study on antigen-presenting function of gamma delta T cells in sepsis and its molecular mechanisms
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This study will investigate the molecular mechanisms of atypical-antipsychotic induced insulin resistance. This will be accomplished by administering olanzapine or placebo to healthy subje...
The researchers are trying to identify molecular mechanisms that control spine deformity and degenerative changes that can be used for therapeutic strategies.
The key objective of this pilot study is to assess the molecular mechanisms of renal pre-conditioning by a one-week low-calorie diet in humans. The protective effect of the low-calorie di...
A multisubunit polycomb protein complex that catalyzes the METHYLATION of chromosomal HISTONE H3. It works in conjunction with POLYCOMB REPRESSIVE COMPLEX 1 to effect EPIGENETIC REPRESSION.
A multisubunit polycomb protein complex with affinity for CHROMATIN that contains methylated HISTONE H3. It contains an E3 ubiquitin ligase activity that is specific for HISTONE H2A and works in conjunction with POLYCOMB REPRESSIVE COMPLEX 2 to effect EPIGENETIC REPRESSION.
A histone-lysine N-methyltransferase and catalytic subunit of Polycomb Repressive Complex 2. It methylates LYSINE 9 (H3K9me) and LYSINE 27 (H3K27me) of HISTONE H3, leading to transcriptional repression of the affected target gene. EZH2 also methylates non-histone proteins such as GATA4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and the nuclear receptor RORA. It regulates CIRCADIAN CLOCKS via histone methylation at the PROMOTER REGIONS of the circadian genes and its repressive activity is also important for the identity and differentiation of EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS.
A class of drugs producing both physiological and psychological effects through a variety of mechanisms. They can be divided into "specific" agents, e.g., affecting an identifiable molecular mechanism unique to target cells bearing receptors for that agent, and "nonspecific" agents, those producing effects on different target cells and acting by diverse molecular mechanisms. Those with nonspecific mechanisms are generally further classed according to whether they produce behavioral depression or stimulation. Those with specific mechanisms are classed by locus of action or specific therapeutic use. (From Gilman AG, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p252)
Pharmacological activities at the molecular level of DRUGS and other exogenous compounds that are used to treat DISEASES and affect normal BIOCHEMISTRY.
The development and maintenance of an organism is orchestrated by a set of chemical reactions that switch parts of the genome off and on at strategic times and locations. Epigenetics is the study of these reactions and the factors that influence them. ...
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