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Glycosylation is an essential biological process that adds structural and functional diversity to cells and molecules, participating in physiological processes such as immunity. The immune response is driven and modulated by protein-attached glycans that mediate cell-cell interactions, pathogen recognition and cell activation. Therefore, abnormal glycosylation can be associated with deranged immune responses. Within human diseases presenting immunological defects are Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation (CDG), a family of around 130 rare and complex genetic diseases. In this review, we have identified 23 CDG with immunological involvement, characterised by an increased propensity to - often life-threatening - infection. Inflammatory and autoimmune complications were found in 7 CDG types. CDG natural history(ies) and the mechanisms behind the immunological anomalies are still poorly understood. However, in some cases, alterations in pathogen recognition and intracellular signalling (e.g. TGF-β1, NFAT and NF-κB) have been suggested. Targeted therapies to restore immune defects are only available for PGM3-CDG and SLC35C1-CDG. Fostering research on glycoimmunology may elucidate the involved pathophysiological mechanisms and open new therapeutic avenues, thus improving CDG patients' quality of life. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of inherited metabolic disease
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The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
A heterogeneous, immature population of myeloid cells that can suppress the activity of T-CELLS and NATURAL KILLER CELLS in the INNATE IMMUNE RESPONSE and ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE. They play important roles in ONCOGENESIS; INFLAMMATION; and INFECTION.
The characteristic properties and processes involved in IMMUNITY and an organism's immune response.
Alteration of the immune system or of an immune response by agents that activate or suppress its function. This can include IMMUNIZATION or administration of immunomodulatory drugs. Immunomodulation can also encompass non-therapeutic alteration of the immune system effected by endogenous or exogenous substances.
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