Inferior alveolar nerve transection disturbs innate immune responses and bone healing after tooth extraction.

08:00 EDT 16th May 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Inferior alveolar nerve transection disturbs innate immune responses and bone healing after tooth extraction."

Coordination between the nervous and innate immune systems to maintain bone homeostasis is largely uncharacterized. The present study investigated the sensory-immune interaction in resting alveolar bone and healing socket by surgical sensory denervation. Bone histomorphometry and immunohistochemistry showed that sensory denervation resulted in moderate suppression of bone remodeling, with a proinflammatory milieu manifested by increased neutrophil recruitment and possible alternations in macrophage phenotypes along the resting bone surface. This denervation effect intensified when bone remodeling was triggered by tooth extraction, as revealed by disrupted temporospatial variations in macrophage subpopulations and neutrophil infiltration, which were closely associated with a dramatic decline in socket bone filling and residual ridge height. Antagonism of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) brought about similar antianabolic and proinflammatory effects as sensory denervation, suggesting that sensory nerves may monitor the bony milieu by CGRP. Depletion of macrophages, rather than neutrophils, ruled out CGRP effects, illustrating that macrophages were the primary immune mechanism that linked sensory innervation, innate immunity, and bone. The data support that sensory innervation is required for control of innate immune responses and maintenance of bone homeostasis. Sensory neuropeptides, such as CGRP, are a possible target for the development of proanabolic treatments in bone disease by modulating innate immune responses.


Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
ISSN: 1749-6632


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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-23 is comprised of a unique 19 kDa subunit and 40 kDa subunit that is shared with INTERLEUKIN-12. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells

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The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.

Diseases of the oculomotor nerve or nucleus that result in weakness or paralysis of the superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique, or levator palpebrae muscles, or impaired parasympathetic innervation to the pupil. With a complete oculomotor palsy, the eyelid will be paralyzed, the eye will be in an abducted and inferior position, and the pupil will be markedly dilated. Commonly associated conditions include neoplasms, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, ischemia (especially in association with DIABETES MELLITUS), and aneurysmal compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p270)

A nerve which originates in the sacral spinal cord (S2 to S4) and innervates the PERINEUM, the external GENITALIA, the external ANAL SPHINCTER and the external urethral sphincter. It has three major branches: the perineal nerve, inferior anal nerves, and the dorsal nerve of penis or clitoris.

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