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Individualized treatment regimes (ITRs) aim to recommend treatments based on patient-specific characteristics in order to maximize the expected clinical outcome. Outcome weighted learning approaches have been proposed for this optimization problem with primary focus on the binary treatment case. Many require assumptions of the outcome value or the randomization mechanism. In this paper, we propose a general framework for multi-category ITRs using generic surrogate risk. The proposed method accommodates the situations when the outcome takes negative value and/or when the propensity score is unknown. Theoretical results about Fisher consistency, excess risk and risk consistency are established. In practice, we recommend using differentiable convex loss for computational optimization. We demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method under multinomial deviance risk to some existing methods by simulation and application on data from a clinical trial. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Acromegaly is a rare and challenging disease calling for management in highly specialized multidisciplinary teams (MDTs). Untreated disease has severe morbidity and a clearly increased mortality. Majo...
The purpose of this study was to determine whether quantitative T2-weighted imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) texture features of bladder cancer and extravesical fat are predictive of m...
The aim of this study was to improve the geometric fidelity and spatial resolution of multi-b diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the prostate.
Targeted Evaluation Action and Monitoring of Traumatic Brain Injury (TEAM-TBI) is a monitored, multiple interventional research identifying clinical profiles and assigns individualized, evidence-based...
ObjectivObjective: A new method for fitting Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DW-MRI) data composed of an unknown number of multi-exponential components is presented and evaluated.
Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women and its definite diagnose is still challenge for radiologist. This study is going to evaluate multi-b value diffusion weighted ...
This clinical trial studies diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in identifying and localizing tumors in patients with non-small cell lung cancer undergoing radiation therap...
This is a randomized controlled clinical trial comparing treatment success of a gene-derived individualized drug-resistant Tuberculosis regimen to a standard Tuberculosis regimen based on ...
The purpose of this study is to explore the individualized administration model of warfarin suitable for Chinese people, and provide a scientific reference for the use of warfarin to Chine...
Hospitalized patients with dementia and aggression and/or agitation will be given a weighted blanket to see if there are significant reductions in agitated and aggressive behaviors compare...
A broad category of multi-ingredient preparations that are marketed for the relief of upper respiratory symptoms resulting from the COMMON COLD; ALLERGIES; or HUMAN INFLUENZA. While the majority of these medications are available as OVER-THE-COUNTER DRUGS some of them contain ingredients that require them to be sold as PRESCRIPTION DRUGS or as BEHIND-THE COUNTER DRUGS.
Methods to determine in patients the nature of a disease or disorder at its early stage of progression. Generally, early diagnosis improves PROGNOSIS and TREATMENT OUTCOME.
Differences of opinion or disagreements that may arise, for example, between health professionals and patients or their families, or against a political regime.
A specific category of drugs that prevent sleepiness by specifically targeting sleep-mechanisms in the brain. They are used to treat DISORDERS OF EXCESSIVE SOMNOLENCE such as NARCOLEPSY. Note that this drug category does not include broadly-acting central nervous system stimulants such as AMPHETAMINES.
Therapeutic approach tailoring therapy for genetically defined subgroups of patients.
Clinical Approvals Clinical Trials Drug Approvals Drug Delivery Drug Discovery Generics Drugs Prescription Drugs In the fields of medicine, biotechnology and pharmacology, drug discovery is the process by which drugs are dis...
In a clinical trial or interventional study, participants receive specific interventions according to the research plan or protocol created by the investigators. These interventions may be medical products, such as drugs or devices; procedures; or change...