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Heroin abuse is a serious problem that endangers human health and affects social stability. Though often being used as confirmation of heroin use, 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM) has limitations due to its short detection window. To compare the detection windows of heroin metabolites (morphine (MOR), 6-MAM, morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G)) in human urine, an automated online solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and fully validated. The limits of detections (LODs) of the four metabolites were in the range of 1.25-5 ng/mL. Intra and inter-day precision for all the metabolites was 0.4-6.7% and 1.8-7.3%, respectively. Accuracy ranged from 92.9 to 101.7%. This method was then applied to the analysis of urine samples of 20 male heroin abusers. M3G was detected 9-11 days after admission to the drug rehabilitation institute in 40% of heroin users while MOR or M6G was not always detected. The detection window of M3G was thus the longest. Furthermore, M3G had a much higher concentration than MOR and M6G. Therefore, M3G could provide diagnostic information with regard to heroin exposure in the combination with other clues (e.g., heroin seizures at the scene).
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of analytical toxicology
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Strong dependence, both physiological and emotional, upon heroin.
A protein extract of human menopausal urine in which LUTEINIZING HORMONE has been partially or completely removed. Urofollitropin represents FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE from the urine.
A syndrome associated with inflammation of the BRACHIAL PLEXUS. Clinical features include severe pain in the shoulder region which may be accompanied by MUSCLE WEAKNESS and loss of sensation in the upper extremity. This condition may be associated with VIRUS DISEASES; IMMUNIZATION; SURGERY; heroin use (see HEROIN DEPENDENCE); and other conditions. The term brachial neuralgia generally refers to pain associated with brachial plexus injury. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1355-6)
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