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Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the major etiological agent causing acute watery diarrhea that is most frequently seen in young children in lower-income countries. The duration of diarrheal symptom may be shortened by antibiotic treatment, but ETEC is relative refractory to common antibiotics. Burgeoning evidence suggests bioactive components that naturally occur in human milk (e.g., lysozyme and oligosaccharides) and plants (e.g., nondigestible carbohydrates and phytochemicals) contain antimicrobial functions are promising preventive measures to control ETEC infection. Although the exact protective mechanisms may vary for each compound and are still not completely understood, they generally act to (1) competitively inhibit the binding of pathogenic bacteria and toxins to gut epithelium; (2) directly kill pathogens; and (3) stimulate and/or enhance host mucosal and systemic immune defense against pathogenic microorganisms. An appropriate ETEC-challenge animal model is critical to evaluate the effect and unveil the mechanism of bioactive compounds in prevention of enteric infection. Despite wide application in biomedical research, rodents do not usually manifest typical clinical signs of enteric infections. The remarkable differences in digestive physiology, immune response, and gut microbiota between rodents and human beings necessitate the use of alternative animal models. Pigs are closely related to humans in terms of genomes, physiology, anatomy of gastrointestinal tracts, digestive enzymes, components of immune system, and gut microbiota. Like human infants and young children, nursing and nursery piglets are more susceptible to ETEC infection and reproduce the clinical signs as observed in humans. Hence, the ETEC-challenge piglet represents a valuable translational model to study pathogenesis and evaluate dietary factors (e.g., milk bioactive compounds, nondigestible carbohydrates, and phytochemicals) as preventive measures for ETEC infection in pediatrics.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: ILAR journal
In low-income countries, data on prevalence and effects of group B Streptococcus (GBS) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) colonization among pregnant women are scarce, but necessary to formulate preventio...
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This study examines the effects of dietary Macleaya cordata extract (MCE) on bacterial burden and resistance to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) in ICR mice. ICR mice were randomly distributed ...
The existing diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) challenge model is already suitable for dietary interventions in its current form, targeted to impact on the immediate clinical sympt...
Although the existing diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) challenge model is already suitable for dietary interventions in its current form, further characterization of the working-...
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Strains of Escherichia coli that possess virulence traits which allow them to invade, colonize, and induce disease in tissues outside of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. They are a cause of URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS (UROPATHOGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI); neonatal MENINGITIS; SEPSIS; PNEUMONIA; and SURGICAL WOUND INFECTION.
Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI that are a subgroup of SHIGA-TOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI. They cause non-bloody and bloody DIARRHEA; HEMOLYTIC UREMIC SYNDROME; and hemorrhagic COLITIS. An important member of this subgroup is ESCHERICHIA COLI O157-H7.
Strains of Escherichia coli that preferentially grow and persist within the urinary tract. They exhibit certain virulence factors and strategies that cause urinary tract infections.
A class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS. They include SHIGA TOXIN which is produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE and a variety of shiga-like toxins that are produced by pathologic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157.
An enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli of the O subfamily that can cause severe FOODBORNE DISEASE. The H4 serotype strain produces SHIGA TOXINS and has been linked to human disease outbreaks, including some cases of HEMOLYTIC-UREMIC SYNDROME, resulting from contamination of foods by feces containing E. coli O104.
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