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The cellular immunotherapy field has achieved important milestones in the last 30 years towards the treatment of a variety of cancers due to improvements in ex-vivo T cell manufacturing processes, the invention of synthetic T cell receptors, and advances in cellular engineering. Here, we discuss major preclinical models that have been useful for the validation of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapies and also promising new models that will fuel future investigations towards success. However, multiple unanswered questions in the CAR-T cell field remain to be addressed that will require innovative preclinical models. Key challenges facing the field include premature immune rejection of universal CAR-T cells and the immune suppressive tumor microenvironment. Immune competent models that accurately recapitulate tumor heterogeneity, the hostile tumor microenvironment, and barriers to CAR-T cell homing, toxicity, and persistence are needed for further advancement of the field.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: ILAR journal
A fracture-related infection (FRI) is an important complication that can lead to an increase in morbidity, mortality and economic costs. Preclinical in vivo models are critical in the evaluation of no...
Preclinical models of human diseases are critical to our understanding of disease etiology, pathology, and progression and enable the development of effective treatments. An ideal model of human disea...
3D organ models have gained increasing attention as novel preclinical test systems and alternatives to animal testing. Over the years, many excellent in vitro tissue models have been developed. In par...
In spite of the latest advancements in understanding cancer development and progression, drugs successful in preclinical testing often fail upon reaching phase III clinical trials. A reason for this i...
Running is a natural part of human locomotion and humans have been running for million of years. In modern society, running has become a popular way of exercise and is undertaken by many p...
The iTrackFitness study aims to test the "engagement engine" that was developed from activity tracker and survey data gathered during phase I of the study. For the current phase the "engag...
Evaluation of clinical, therapeutic and prognostic relevance of new experimental results as well as optimization of therapeutic models and development of a new algorithm for therapeutic pl...
The purpose of this study is to determine whether in healthy subjects listening to music while running influences the ground pressure forces, the vertical loading and, overall, the running...
Background: ß-lactam (BL) antibiotics represent the main cause of allergic reactions to drugs, inducing both immediate and non-immediate reactions. The diagnosis is well established, usua...
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.
A diagnostic test is any kind of medical test performed to aid in the diagnosis or detection of disease. For example: to diagnose diseases to measure the progress or recovery from disease to confirm that a person is free from disease Clin...
Allergies Automimmune Disease Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Immunology Vaccine Immunology is the study of immunity and the defence mechanisms of the body. A greater understanding of immunology is needed to develop vaccines, understand ...