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ADP-ribosylation is a ubiquitous post-translational addition of either monomers or polymers of ADP-ribose to target proteins by ADP-ribosyltransferases, usually by interferon-inducible diphtheria toxin-like enzymes known as PARPs. While several PARPs have known antiviral activities, these activities are mostly independent of ADP-ribosylation. Consequently, less is known about the antiviral effects of ADP-ribosylation. Several viral families, including Coronaviridae, Togaviridae, and Hepeviridae, encode for macrodomain proteins that bind to and hydrolyze ADP-ribose from proteins and are critical for optimal replication and virulence. These results suggest that macrodomains counter cellular ADP-ribosylation, but whether PARPs or, alternatively, other ADP-ribosyltransferases cause this modification is not clear. Here we show that pan-PARP inhibition enhanced replication and inhibited interferon production in primary macrophages infected with macrodomain-mutant but not wild-type coronavirus. Specifically, knockdown of two abundantly expressed PARPs, PARP12 and PARP14, led to increased replication of mutant but did not significantly affect wild-type virus. PARP14 was also important for the induction of interferon in mouse and human cells, indicating a critical role for this PARP in the regulation of innate immunity. In summary, these data demonstrate that the macrodomain is required to prevent PARP-mediated inhibition of coronavirus replication and enhancement of interferon production.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PLoS pathogens
ADP-ribosylation is a posttranslational modification generated by members of the superfamily of ADP-ribosyltransferases, known as the Parp enzymes. Depending on the superfamily member, Parp enzymes ca...
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A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting cats of all ages and commonly found in catteries and zoos. Cats are often found carrying the virus but only a small proportion develop disease. Feline coronavirus and Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) are virtually the same virus in genetic and antigenetic terms, and are morphologically indistinguishable. Since they only differ in their disease potential (with FIPV causing a more serious illness), they are considered biotypes of each other.
The type species of BETACORONAVIRUS genus causing gastroenteritis respiratory diseases in mammals. Previously separate species HUMAN CORONAVIRUS OC43; BOVINE CORONAVIRUS; Human enteric coronavirus; Equine coronavirus; and Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus merged into this species on the basis of similar genome nucleotide sequence and genome organization.
A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing upper and lower RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS. It shares the receptor used by the SARS VIRUS.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing pneumonia in newborn rats but a clinically inapparent infection in adults. It is separate but antigenically related to MURINE HEPATITIS VIRUS.
A genus of the family CORONAVIRIDAE which causes respiratory or gastrointestinal disease in a variety of mostly mammals. Human betacoronaviruses include HUMAN ENTERIC CORONAVIRUS; HUMAN CORONAVIRUS OC43; MERS VIRUS; and SARS VIRUS. Members have either core transcription regulatory sequences of 5’-CUAAAC-3’ or 5’-CUAAAC-3’ and mostly have no ORF downstream to the N protein gene.
Allergies Automimmune Disease Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Immunology Vaccine Immunology is the study of immunity and the defence mechanisms of the body. A greater understanding of immunology is needed to develop vaccines, understand ...