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The low pathogenicity and replicative potential of HIV-2 are still poorly understood. We investigated whether HIV-2 reservoirs might follow the peculiar distribution reported in models of attenuated HIV-1/SIV infections, i.e. limited infection of central-memory CD4 T lymphocytes (TCM). Antiretroviral-naive HIV-2 infected individuals from the ANRS-CO5 (12 non-progressors, 2 progressors) were prospectively included. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were sorted into monocytes and resting CD4 T-cell subsets (naive [TN], central- [TCM], transitional- [TTM] and effector-memory [TEM]). Reactivation of HIV-2 was tested in 30-day cultures of CD8-depleted PBMCs. HIV-2 DNA was quantified by real-time PCR. Cell surface markers, co-receptors and restriction factors were analyzed by flow-cytometry and multiplex transcriptomic study. HIV-2 DNA was undetectable in monocytes from all individuals and was quantifiable in TTM from 4 individuals (median: 2.25 log10 copies/106 cells [
1.99-2.94]) but in TCM from only 1 individual (1.75 log10 copies/106 cells). HIV-2 DNA levels in PBMCs (median: 1.94 log10 copies/106 PBMC [IQR = 1.53-2.13]) positively correlated with those in TTM (r = 0.66, p = 0.01) but not TCM. HIV-2 reactivation was observed in the cells from only 3 individuals. The CCR5 co-receptor was distributed similarly in cell populations from individuals and donors. TCM had a lower expression of CXCR6 transcripts (p = 0.002) than TTM confirmed by FACS analysis, and a higher expression of TRIM5 transcripts (p = 0.004). Thus the low HIV-2 reservoirs differ from HIV-1 reservoirs by the lack of monocytic infection and a limited infection of TCM associated to a lower expression of a potential alternative HIV-2 co-receptor, CXCR6 and a higher expression of a restriction factor, TRIM5. These findings shed new light on the low pathogenicity of HIV-2 infection suggesting mechanisms close to those reported in other models of attenuated HIV/SIV infection models.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PLoS pathogens
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A CXCR6 receptor-binding chemokine that functions as a scavenger receptor for oxidized low density lipoprotein (OxLDL) when expressed by MACROPHAGES. Its secreted, or cytokine form induces a strong chemotactic response for MONOCYTES when it is expressed by DENDRITIC CELLS.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. They are found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES, some EPITHELIAL CELLS; and lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations in the CD40 antigen gene result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Type of declarative memory, consisting of personal memory in contrast to general knowledge.
A type I G protein-coupled receptor mostly expressed post-synaptic pyramidal cells of the cortex and CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
AIDS and HIV
AIDS; Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. HIV; Human Immunodeficiency Virus HIV infection causes AIDS. HIV infection also causes the production of anti-HIV antibodies, which forms the test for HIV in patients. People who have the HIV antibodies are ...
Antiretroviral Therapy Clostridium Difficile Ebola HIV & AIDS Infectious Diseases Influenza Malaria Measles Sepsis Swine Flu Tropical Medicine Tuberculosis Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic...