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The ribosome small subunit is expressed in all living cells. It performs numerous essential functions during translation, including formation of the initiation complex and proofreading of base-pairs between mRNA codons and tRNA anticodons. The core constituent of the small ribosomal subunit is a ~1.5 kb RNA strand in prokaryotes (16S rRNA) and a homologous ~1.8 kb RNA strand in eukaryotes (18S rRNA). Traditional sequencing-by-synthesis (SBS) of rRNA genes or rRNA cDNA copies has achieved wide use as a 'molecular chronometer' for phylogenetic studies, and as a tool for identifying infectious organisms in the clinic. However, epigenetic modifications on rRNA are erased by SBS methods. Here we describe direct MinION nanopore sequencing of individual, full-length 16S rRNA absent reverse transcription or amplification. As little as 5 picograms (~10 attomole) of purified E. coli 16S rRNA was detected in 4.5 micrograms of total human RNA. Nanopore ionic current traces that deviated from canonical patterns revealed conserved E. coli 16S rRNA 7-methylguanosine and pseudouridine modifications, and a 7-methylguanosine modification that confers aminoglycoside resistance to some pathological E. coli strains.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
While characterizing a therapeutic IgG4 monoclonal antibody (mAb), we observed a variant with a mass 1177 Da larger than the predominant mAb form that could not be ascribed to previously described m...
The "RNA first" model for the origin of life holds that RNA emerged spontaneously on early Earth and developed into life through its dual capabilities for genetics and catalysis. The model's central w...
Most people with low vision experience difficulty with reading. Reading assessment can provide guidance for prescription of reading aids and strategies for reading rehabilitation. Here we investigate ...
In light of the current biodiversity crisis, DNA barcoding is developing into an essential tool to quantify state shifts in global ecosystems. Current barcoding protocols often rely on short amplicon ...
Readers who have seen the Harry Potter movies before reading the novels may "hear" actors' voices in their heads when they later read the books. This phenomenon of mentally simulating the voice of spe...
The aim of this project is to determine how shared reading promotes child language development, and to use this knowledge to make it an effective language-boosting tool for children from a...
The purpose of the proposed studies is to examine a reading intervention for fourth grade students with reading difficulties that integrate work in mindset (beliefs about whether abilities...
The first line of defense against reading disabilities is good classroom reading instruction. This study describes how characteristics of students, teachers, and instruction relate to aca...
Headsprout is a commercially available computer-based reading program that teaches children fundamental reading skills, including phonics, fluency, and comprehension. The Headsprout readin...
The diagnosis of infectious endocarditis is not always easy and is based on several clinical and imaging arguments. Positron Emission Tomography - Computed Tomography (PET-CT) has been val...
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
The large subunit of the 80s ribosome of eukaryotes. It is composed of the 28S RIBOSOMAL RNA, the 5.8S RIBOSOMAL RNA, the 5S RIBOSOMAL RNA, and about 50 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.
A cognitive disorder characterized by an impaired ability to comprehend written and printed words or phrases despite intact vision. This condition may be developmental or acquired. Developmental dyslexia is marked by reading achievement that falls substantially below that expected given the individual's chronological age, measured intelligence, and age-appropriate education. The disturbance in reading significantly interferes with academic achievement or with activities of daily living that require reading skills. (From DSM-IV)
A family of ribosomal protein S6 kinases that are structurally distinguished from RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, 70-KDA by their apparent molecular size and the fact they contain two functional kinase domains. Although considered RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, members of this family are activated via the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM and have been shown to act on a diverse array of substrates that are involved in cellular regulation such as RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 and CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN.
A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.
DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule. During DNA sequencing, the bases of a small fragment of DNA are sequentially identified from signals emitted as each fragment is re-synthesized from a ...
Antiretroviral Therapy Clostridium Difficile Ebola HIV & AIDS Infectious Diseases Influenza Malaria Measles Sepsis Swine Flu Tropical Medicine Tuberculosis Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic...
The development and maintenance of an organism is orchestrated by a set of chemical reactions that switch parts of the genome off and on at strategic times and locations. Epigenetics is the study of these reactions and the factors that influence them. ...