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Although in Europe the quality of swimming pools (SPs) is dictated by regulations, microbiological and chemical hazards are described in the literature. Environmental bacteria or toxic disinfection by-product (DBP) compounds may indeed be recovered in waters even after disinfection. We evaluated the water quality from 26 outdoor seasonal SPs of the Versilia district, according to requirements of Regional Decree 54R/2015. In spring 2017, supply and reinstatement waters were collected after shock hyperchlorination (10 mg/L) while in summertime, a second sampling of waters before entering the pools, as well as in the pools, was performed after SPs were open to the public. In all samples, microbiological and chemical parameters were determined as defined by Directive 98/83/EC and the Italian Health Ministry. Microbiological data were within suggested limits. The first chemical analyses showed that in 35% of the feeding-pool seawater samples, the halogenated organic compounds were higher than the maximum permissible concentrations (30 μg/L). Pool waters were then dechlorinated and re-treated with hydrogen peroxide (10 mg/L) to ensure the abatement of DBPs (from 164 ± 107 to 0.9 ± 0.8 μg/L; p = 0.002). Results highlighted the need of self-controlled procedures for the SPs waters to prevent waterborne diseases and suggested hydrogen peroxide as the most appropriate disinfection method.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of water and health
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A system of safety management (abbreviated HACCP) applied mainly to the food industry. It involves the analysis and control of biological, chemical, and physical hazards, from raw material production, procurement and handling, to manufacturing, distribution and consumption of finished products.
Specific practices for the prevention of disease or mental disorders in susceptible individuals or populations. These include HEALTH PROMOTION, including mental health; protective procedures, such as COMMUNICABLE DISEASE CONTROL; and monitoring and regulation of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS. Primary prevention is to be distinguished from SECONDARY PREVENTION and TERTIARY PREVENTION.
An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.
Excavations or containment structures filled with water and used for swimming.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)