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Most commercial swimming pools use pressurised filters, typically containing sand media, to remove suspended solids as part of the water treatment process designed to keep water attractive, clean and safe. The accidental release of faecal material by bathers presents a poorly quantified risk to the safety of swimmers using the pool. The water treatment process usually includes a combination of maintaining a residual concentration of an appropriate biocide in the pool together with filtration to physically remove particles, including microbial pathogens, from the water. However, there is uncertainty about the effectiveness of treatment processes in removing all pathogens, and there has been growing concern about the number of reported outbreaks of the gastrointestinal disease cryptosporidiosis, caused by the chlorine-resistant protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium. A number of interacting issues influence the effectiveness of filtration for the removal of Cryptosporidium oocysts from swimming pools. This review explains the mechanisms by which filters remove particles of different sizes (including oocyst-sized particles, typically 4-6 μm), factors that affect the efficiency of particle removal (such as filtration velocity), current recommended management practices, and identifies further work to support the development of a risk-based management approach for the management of waterborne disease outbreaks from swimming pools.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of water and health
Cryptosporidium, a waterborne protozoan pathogen that can cause gastrointestinal illness, is often found in surface waters that are used to supply drinking water. Filtration is a major process to remo...
The genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. in Apodemus spp. (striped field mouse, yellow-necked mouse and wood mouse) from 16 European countries was examined by PCR/sequencing of isolates from 437 ...
Cryptosporidium spp. are opportunistic pathogens that cause diarrhea in a variety of animal hosts. Although they have been reported in many animals, no information has been published on the occurrence...
Cryptosporidium is a medical and veterinary significant protozoan parasite that infects all classes of vertebrates. Environmental contamination with infective oocyst increases the risk of transmission...
Biological methods are a promising approach to treating wastewater in order to produce water of an appropriate quality for sub-potable water purposes, thus reducing pressure on potable water sources. ...
A Randomized, Multicenter, Double-Blind, Parallel-Group, Placebo-Controlled Trial of the Efficacy and Safety of Bovine Anti-Cryptosporidium Immunoglobulin (BACI) in the Treatment of Cryptosporidium Enteritis in AIDS Patients
PRIMARY: To assess the effect of bovine anti-Cryptosporidium immunoglobulin (BACI) on the volume of diarrhea due to Cryptosporidium parvum in AIDS patients who have protracted Cryptosporid...
This study aims to assess the influence of exposure to swimming pool environment on respiratory symptoms and diseases, and on cancer outcomes among swimmers and swimming pool attendants.
This study investigates repetitive cold-water exposure on brown fat activity assessed by infrared thermography imagine. Furthermore we will assess glucose control upon winter-swimming. Obe...
To study the effects of swimming with water walking in children aged between 6 and 12 years in terms of spirometric values.
Aging is associated with progressive decreases in arterial health and function as well as overall fitness. It is crucial to prevent or reduce the negative effects of aging on the vasculatu...
Excavations or containment structures filled with water and used for swimming.
A moderate-growing, photochromogenic species found in aquariums, diseased fish, and swimming pools. It is the cause of cutaneous lesions and granulomas (swimming pool granuloma) in humans. (Dorland, 28th ed)
An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.
A specialized barrier in the kidney, consisting of the fenestrated CAPILLARY ENDOTHELIUM; GLOMERULAR BASEMENT MEMBRANE; and glomerular epithelium (PODOCYTES). The barrier prevents the filtration of PLASMA PROTEINS.
Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.