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Fungal communities inhabiting live, senescent, and decaying leaf sheaths, stems, and leaf blades of standing plants of Spartina maritima in two Portuguese salt marshes were assessed by morphological identification of fruiting structures and sequence-based identification based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-cloning analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA. The molecular method enabled identification of infrequent ascomycetes and basidiomycetes (filamentous and yeasts) and the asexual morph of Byssothecium obiones and Phaeosphaeria halima. The occurrence and ecological role of the most frequent fungi on different S. maritima substrates seem to depend on the phase of plant life cycle, and specifically on the availability and microenvironmental conditions of each plant substrate. Specifically, By. obiones, Natantispora retorquens, and Lulworthia sp. 1 were involved in the decay of lower-middle culms, Buergenerula spartinae of middle culms and leaves, P. halima, Phaeosphaeria spartinicola, and Stagonospora sp. 1 of middle-upper leaves, and Mycosphaerella sp. I of upper leaves of early-decaying S. maritima plants. The presence of these fungi on live vegetative structures suggests that they might begin the colonization process as endophytes, gaining a competitive advantage over the other saprobic fungi on the plants.
This article was published in the following journal.
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Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.
A genus of RED ALGAE, in the family Plocamiaceae, found in temperate marine environments worldwide. Polyhalogenated monoterpenes of potential medicinal use have been isolated from its species.
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A genus of parasitic FUNGI in the family Nosematidae. Some species are pathogenic for invertebrates of economic importance while others are being researched for possible roles in controlling pest INSECTS. They are also pathogenic in humans.
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) uses the ability of DNA polymerase (enzymes that create DNA molecules by assembling nucleotides, the building blocks of DNA. These enzymes are essential to DNA replication and usually work in pairs to create two ident...
Cloning in biology is the process of producing similar populations of genetically identical individuals that occurs in nature when organisms such as bacteria, insects or plants reproduce asexually. Cloning in biotechnology refers to processes used to cre...
Recombinant DNA is the formation of a novel DNA sequence by the formation of two DNA strands. These are taken from two different organisms. These recombinant DNA molecules can be made with recombinant DNA technology. The procedure is to cut the DNA of ...