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Salivary gland dysfunction occurs in several autoimmune and immune-related conditions, including Sjögren syndrome (SS); immune checkpoint inhibitor-induced sicca (ICIS) that develops in some cancer patients and is characterized by severe, sudden-onset dry mouth; and autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED). Although subjects with these conditions present with oral dryness and often exhibit inflammatory infiltration of the salivary gland, little is known about the B-cell humoral responses directed against salivary gland protein targets. In this study, autoantibodies were evaluated against Ro52, Ro60, and La, as well as against a panel of 22 proteins derived from the salivary proteome. The tested cohort included healthy volunteers and subjects with SS, ICIS, and APECED without and with sicca. As expected, a high percentage of autoantibody seropositivity was detected against Ro52, Ro60, and La in SS, but only a few ICIS patients were seropositive for these autoantigens. A few APECED subjects also harbored autoantibodies to Ro52 and La, but only Ro60 autoantibodies were weakly associated with a small subset of APECED patients with sicca. Additional testing of the salivary panel failed to detect seropositive autoantibodies against any of the salivary-enriched proteins in the SS and ICIS subjects. However, APECED subjects selectively demonstrated seropositivity against BPI fold containing family A member 1 (BPIFA1), BPI fold containing family A member 2 (BPIFA2)/parotid salivary protein (PSP), and lactoperoxidase, 3 salivary-enriched proteins. Moreover, high levels of serum autoantibodies against BPIFA1 and BPIFA2/PSP occurred in 30% and 67% of the APECED patients with sicca symptoms, respectively, and were associated with an earlier age onset of oral dryness ( P = 0.001). These findings highlight the complexity of humoral responses in different sicca diseases and provide new insights and biomarkers for APECED-associated sicca (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00001196; NCT00001390; NCT01425892; NCT01386437).
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of dental research
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