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Murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (AKT) kinases target both cytosolic and nuclear substrates for phosphorylation. Whereas the cytosolic substrates are known to be closely associated with the regulation of apoptosis and autophagy or metabolism and protein synthesis, the nuclear substrates are, for the most part, poorly understood. To better define the role of nuclear AKT, potential AKT substrates were isolated from the nuclear lysates of leukemic cell lines using a phosphorylated AKT substrate antibody and identified in tandem mass spectrometry. Among the proteins identified was adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR)1p110, the predominant nuclear isoform of the adenosine deaminase acting on double-stranded RNA. Coimmunoprecipitation studies and kinase assays revealed that AKT-1, -2, and -3 interact with both ADAR1p110 and ADAR2 and phosphorylate these RNA editases. Using site-directed mutagenesis of suspected AKT phosphorylation sites, AKT was found to primarily phosphorylate ADAR1p110 and ADAR2 on T738 and T553, respectively, and overexpression of the phosphomimic mutants ADAR1p110 (T738D) and ADAR2 (T553D) resulted in a 50-100% reduction in editase activity. Thus, activation of AKT has a direct and major impact on RNA editing.-Bavelloni, A., Focaccia, E., Piazzi, M., Raffini, M., Cesarini, V., Tomaselli, S., Orsini, A., Ratti, S., Faenza, I., Cocco, L., Gallo, A., Blalock, W. L. AKT-dependent phosphorylation of the adenosine deaminases ADAR-1 and -2 inhibits deaminase activity.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
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Drugs that inhibit ADENOSINE DEAMINASE activity.
An APOBEC deaminase that functions as an inhibitor of RETROVIRIDAE replication and inhibits the mobility of RETROTRANSPOSONS via deaminase-dependent and independent mechanisms. It is selective for SINGLE-STRANDED DNA and does not deaminate double-stranded DNA or single or DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA. It exhibits potent antiviral activity against VIF PROTEIN deficient HIV-1 through the creation of hypermutations in the VIRAL DNA. It also has anti-viral activity against SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES and HEPATITIS B VIRUS.
A stable adenosine A1 and A2 receptor agonist. Experimentally, it inhibits cAMP and cGMP phosphodiesterase activity.
A family of conserved cytidine deaminases that catalyze the DEAMINATION of CYTIDINE to URIDINE. They are characterized by N and C-terminal zinc-dependent catalytic domains and have important functions in RNA EDITING; EPIGENTIC PROCESSES; and the INNATE IMMUNE RESPONSE against viruses.
A potent inhibitor of ADENOSINE DEAMINASE. The drug induces APOPTOSIS of LYMPHOCYTES, and is used in the treatment of many lymphoproliferative malignancies, particularly HAIRY CELL LEUKEMIA. It is also synergistic with some other antineoplastic agents and has immunosuppressive activity.