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Rac-GTPases are major regulators of cytoskeletal remodeling and their deregulation contributes to numerous pathologies. Whether or how Rac promotes tubulointerstitial fibrosis and chronic kidney disease (CKD) is currently unknown. We showed that the major profibrotic cytokine, TGF-β1 promoted rapid Rac1-GTP loading in human kidney 2 (HK-2) human renal epithelial cells. A Rac-specific chemical inhibitor, EHT 1864, blocked TGF-β1-induced fibrotic reprogramming in kidney epithelial cells and fibroblasts. Stable Rac1 depletion in HK-2 cells, moreover, eliminated TGF-β1-mediated non-SMAD pathway activation [, Src, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), p53] and subsequent plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), connective tissue growth factor, fibronectin, and p21 induction. Rac1 and p22 knockdown abrogated free radical generation by TGF-β1 in HK-2 cells, consistent with the role of Rac1 in Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase signaling. TGF-β1-induced renal epithelial cytostasis was also completely bypassed by Rac1, p22, p47, and PAI-1 silencing. Rac1b isoform expression was robustly induced in the fibrotic kidneys of mice and humans. Intraperitoneal administration of EHT 1864 in mice dramatically attenuated ureteral unilateral obstruction-driven EGFR, p53, Rac1b, yes-associated protein/transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif activation/expression, dedifferentiation, cell cycle arrest, and renal fibrogenesis evident in vehicle-treated obstructed kidneys. Thus, the Rac1-directed redox response is critical for TGF-β1-driven epithelial dysfunction orchestrated, in part, PAI-1 up-regulation. Rac pathway inhibition suppressed renal oxidative stress and maladaptive repair, identifying Rac as a novel therapeutic target against progressive CKD.-Patel, S., Tang, J., Overstreet, J. M., Anorga, S., Lian, F., Arnouk, A., Goldschmeding, R., Higgins, P. J., Samarakoon, R. Rac-GTPase promotes fibrotic TGF-β1 signaling and chronic kidney disease EGFR, p53, and Hippo/YAP/TAZ pathways.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
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Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level for more than three months. Chronic kidney insufficiency is classified by five stages according to the decline in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA). The most severe form is the end-stage renal disease (CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE). (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002)
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
Decalcification of bone or abnormal bone development due to chronic KIDNEY DISEASES, in which 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 synthesis by the kidneys is impaired, leading to reduced negative feedback on PARATHYROID HORMONE. The resulting SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM eventually leads to bone disorders.
Abnormal enlargement or swelling of a KIDNEY due to dilation of the KIDNEY CALICES and the KIDNEY PELVIS. It is often associated with obstruction of the URETER or chronic kidney diseases that prevents normal drainage of urine into the URINARY BLADDER.
A severe irreversible decline in the ability of kidneys to remove wastes, concentrate URINE, and maintain ELECTROLYTE BALANCE; BLOOD PRESSURE; and CALCIUM metabolism. Renal failure, either acute (KIDNEY FAILURE, ACUTE) or chronic (KIDNEY FAILURE, CHRONIC), requires HEMODIALYSIS.
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